The Åland convention, refers to two conventions regarding the demilitarization and neutralization of the Åland Islands.
- The Åland convention of 1856 was signed on 30 March 1856, following the Russian defeat in the Crimean War against the United Kingdom and France. Russia agreed not to militarise the Åland Islands, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris (1856).
However, the Russians militarized the islands in 1916, a move that alarmed the Swedes.
- The Åland convention of 1921 was signed on 20 October 1921 by Sweden, Finland, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Estonia, and Latvia. See also the Åland Islands dispute.