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Alexei Leonov

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Alexei Leonov
Alexei Leonov.jpg
Leonov in April 1974
Native name
Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов
Born
Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov

(1934-05-30)30 May 1934
Died11 October 2019(2019-10-11) (aged 85)
Moscow, Russia
NationalityRussian
OccupationFighter pilot, cosmonaut
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union (twice)
Space career
Soviet cosmonaut
RankMajor General, Soviet Air Force[1]
Time in space
7d 00h 33min 03s[2]
SelectionAir Force Group 1
Total EVAs
1
Total EVA time
12 minutes, 9 seconds
MissionsVoskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP)
Mission insignia
Voskhod2 patch.png ASTP patch.png Apollo-Soyuz Test Project patch.svg

Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov[a] (30 May 1934 – 11 October 2019) was a Soviet and Russian cosmonaut, Air Force major general, writer, and artist. On 18 March 1965, he became the first human to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the capsule during the Voskhod 2 mission for 12 minutes and 9 seconds.

In July 1975, Leonov commanded the Soyuz capsule in the Soyuz–Apollo mission, which docked in space for two days with an American Apollo capsule.

Early life and military service[edit]

Leonov was born on 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Russian SFSR.[3] His grandfather was forced to relocate to Siberia for his role in the 1905 Russian Revolution. He was the eighth of nine surviving children born to Yevdokia née Sotnikova and Arkhip.[b][4]

In 1936, his father was arrested and declared an "enemy of the people". Leonov wrote in his autobiography: "He was not alone: many were being arrested. It was part of a conscientious drive by the authorities to eradicate anyone who showed too much independence or strength of character. These were the years of Stalin's purges. Many disappeared into remote gulags and were never seen again."[5] The family moved in with one of his married sisters in Kemerovo. His father rejoined the family in Kemerovo after he was released. He was compensated for his wrongful imprisonment.[4] Leonov used art as a way to provide more food for the family. He began his art career by drawing flowers on ovens and later painted landscapes on canvasses.[4]

The Soviet government encouraged its citizens to move to Soviet-occupied Prussia, so in 1948 his family relocated to Kaliningrad.[6] Leonov graduated from secondary school (No. 21) in 1953.[6] He applied to the Academy of Arts in Riga, Latvia, but decided not to attend due to the high tuition costs. Leonov decided to join a Ukrainian preparatory flying school in Kremenchug; he made his first solo flight in May 1955. While at same time indulging in his passion for art by studying part-time in Riga, Leonov started an advanced two-year course to become a fighter pilot at the Chuguev Higher Air Force Pilots School in the Ukrainian SSR.[6]

On 30 October 1957, Leonov graduated with an honours degree and was commissioned a lieutenant in the 113th Parachute Aviation Regiment, part of the 10th Engineering Aviation Division of the 69th Air Army in Kiev.[6] On 13 December 1959, he married Svetlana Pavlovna Dozenko[7] a day before he moved to East Germany to his new assignment with the 294th Reconnaissance Regiment of the 24th Air Army.[6]

Soviet space programme[edit]

Alexei Leonov (left, back row) with fellow cosmonauts in 1965
March 1965, the first space walk

He was one of the 20 Soviet Air Force pilots selected to be part of the first cosmonaut training group in 1960.[8] Leonov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (the only cosmonaut who was not was Konstantin Feoktistov). His walk in space was originally to have taken place on the Voskhod 1 mission, but this was cancelled, and the historic event happened on the Voskhod 2 flight instead.[9] He was outside the spacecraft for 12 minutes and nine seconds on 18 March 1965, connected to the craft by a 4.8-metre (16 ft) tether.[8] At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's spacesuit had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not re-enter the airlock.[8] He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off and was barely able to get back inside the capsule.[8][10] Leonov had spent eighteen months undergoing weightlessness training for the mission.[11]

In 1968, Leonov was selected to be commander of a circumlunar Soyuz 7K-L1 flight. This was cancelled because of delays in achieving a reliable circumlunar flight (only the later Zond 7 and Zond 8 members of the programme were successful) and the Apollo 8 mission had already achieved that step in the Space Race. He was also selected to be the first Soviet person to land on the Moon, aboard the LOK/N1 spacecraft.[9] This project was also cancelled. (The design required a spacewalk between lunar vehicles, something that contributed to his selection.) Leonov was to have been commander of the 1971 Soyuz 11 mission to Salyut 1, the first crewed space station, but his crew was replaced with the backup after one of the members, cosmonaut Valery Kubasov, was suspected to have contracted tuberculosis (the other member was Pyotr Kolodin).[12]

Leonov was to have commanded the next mission to Salyut 1, but this was scrapped after the deaths of the Soyuz 11 crew members, and the space station was lost.[13] The next two Salyuts (actually the military Almaz station) were lost at launch or failed soon after, and Leonov's crew stood by. By the time Salyut 4 reached orbit, Leonov had been switched to a more prestigious project.[14][15]

the five crew members of ASTP sitting around a miniature model of their spacecraft
Apollo-Soyuz crew in 1975

Leonov's second trip into space was as commander of Soyuz 19, the Soviet half of the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz mission – the first joint space mission between the Soviet Union and the United States.[14][16]

From 1976 to 1982, Leonov was the commander of the cosmonaut team ("Chief Cosmonaut") and deputy director of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center, where he oversaw crew training. He also edited the cosmonaut newsletter Neptune. He retired in 1992.[9]

Later life and death[edit]

Leonov's 1967 painting Near the Moon and a screenshot from 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)

Leonov was an accomplished artist whose published books include albums of his artistic works and works he did in collaboration with his friend Andrei Sokolov. Leonov took coloured pencils and paper into space, where he sketched the Earth and drew portraits of the Apollo astronauts who flew with him during the 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project.[17][18] Arthur C. Clarke wrote in his notes to 2010: Odyssey Two that, after a 1968 screening of 2001: A Space Odyssey, Leonov pointed out to him that the alignment of the Moon, Earth, and Sun shown in the opening is essentially the same as that in Leonov's 1967 painting Near the Moon, although the painting's diagonal framing of the scene was not replicated in the film. Clarke kept an autographed sketch of this painting—which Leonov made after the screening—hanging on his office wall.[19] Clarke dedicated 2010: Odyssey Two to Leonov and Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov;[20] and the fictional spaceship in the book is named Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov.[21]

Together with Valentin Selivanov, Leonov wrote the script for the 1980 science fiction film The Orion Loop.[22]

In 2001, he was a vice president of Moscow-based Alfa-Bank and an adviser to the first deputy of the Board.[23]

In 2004, Leonov and former American astronaut David Scott began work on a dual memoir covering the history of the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Titled Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race, it was published in 2006. Neil Armstrong and Tom Hanks both wrote introductions to the book.[24]

Leonov was interviewed by Francis French for the book Into That Silent Sea by Colin Burgess and French.[25]

Leonov died on 11 October 2019 after a long illness in Moscow. His funeral took place on 15 October.[26] He was 85[27] and the last living member of the five cosmonauts in the Voskhod programme.[28]

Leonov was survived by his wife Svetlana Dozenko, a teacher, their daughter Oksana, and two grandchildren; their other daughter, Viktoria, died in 1996.[29]

Legacy[edit]

Alexei Leonov (right) shares a moment with Anton Shkaplerov (left) in October 2011.

Russian awards and honours[edit]

Leonov receiving the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", 3rd class, from Vladimir Putin in 2014
Leonov in 2016, wearing his two Hero of the Soviet Union medals

Foreign awards[edit]

Public organisations[edit]

Leonov, Stephen Hawking, and Brian May at the Starmus Festival, 2016
Alexei Leonov on 1965 USSR 10 kopek stamp.

Other awards and titles[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Russian: Алексе́й Архи́пович Лео́нов, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksʲej ɐˈrxʲipəvʲɪtɕ lʲɪˈonəf]
  2. ^ Three additional children died in infancy[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Soyuz Crew Eager for Another Flight". The New York Times. UPI. 23 July 1975. p. 55.
  2. ^ Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 383.
  3. ^ Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 54.
  4. ^ a b c d Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 55.
  5. ^ Scott & Leonov 2004, p. 8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Burgess & Hall 2009, p. 56.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Алексей Архипович Леонов" [Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov]. Космическая энциклопедия ASTROnote [Space Encyclopedia ASTROnote]. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d "Alexei Leonov: First person to walk in space dies aged 85". BBC News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Hall & Shayler 2003, pp. 332–333.
  10. ^ McKinnon, Mika (18 March 2015). "50 Years Ago, The First Spacewalk Nearly Ended in Tragedy". Gizmodo. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Cosmonaut Leonov recalls life-threatening challenges during historical space walk". UNIS Vienna. 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  12. ^ Evans, Ben (20 February 2014). "Valeri Kubasov, Veteran ASTP Cosmonaut, Dies Aged 79". America Space. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  13. ^ Hall & Shayler 2003, p. 173.
  14. ^ a b Hall & Shayler 2003, p. 210.
  15. ^ Harland & Catchpole 2002, p. 77.
  16. ^ Dicati 2017, p. 61.
  17. ^ "Alexei Leonov, the Artistic Spaceman". ESA. 4 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Alexei Leonov: winner of the 2005 IAAA Lucien Rudaux Memorial Award". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
  19. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (1982). "Author's Note". 2010: Odyssey Two. New York: RosettaBooks. pp. xvii–xviii. ISBN 9780795324826. OCLC 846909138. Clarke describes the painting itself in Chapter 12 of the book.
  20. ^ Suplee, Curt (16 November 1982). "The Galactic Dreamer Returns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  21. ^ Broad, William J. (2 December 1984). "Science Facts Help Propel Science Fiction in the Film 2010". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  22. ^ Abibulaev, Valery (2 April 2009). "Алексей Леонов: 'Выбирать актеров меня просил Михалков'" [Alexei Leonov: "Mikhalkov asked me to choose actors"]. Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Aleksei Leonov and Alexander Gafin become members of the American Pushkin Academy of Art". Alfa-Bank. 23 February 2001. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
  24. ^ "Two Sides of the Moon | Alexei Leonov | Macmillan". US Macmillan. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  25. ^ French & Burgess 2007, p. 396.
  26. ^ "Soviet Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov Dies at 85". Sputnik News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  27. ^ Leman, Jennifer (11 October 2019). "Alexei Leonov, the First Man to Walk In Space, Has Died". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  28. ^ Brown, Mark (31 August 2015). "First picture drawn in space to appear in cosmonauts show in London". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  29. ^ Alexei Leonov obituary The Guardian, 2019-10-22.
  30. ^ Leonov, Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN)
  31. ^ McElheny, Victor K. (15 August 1970). "Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins on Moon again–as Names". The Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ "9533 Aleksejleonov (1981 SA7)". JPL Small-Body Database. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  33. ^ Arthur, Allison (23 November 2010). "Fabian named distinguished member of Association of Space Explorers". Port Townsend Leader. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  34. ^ "First man to conduct spacewalk, Alexei Leonov, dies". AFP.com. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  35. ^ Egorov, Boris (12 April 2019). "3 biopic space films about the USSR's journey into the unknown". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  36. ^ Porzucki, Nina (10 April 2015). "British musical duo Public Service Broadcasting takes us on the race for space". PRI. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  37. ^ Bradsher, Henry S. (23 March 1965). "Moscow Gives Greatest Gala Welcome to Russia's Newest Cosmonauts". The Fresno Bee. Fresno, California. Associated Press. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ a b "Astronaut Foresees Space Shuttle Age". Standard-Speaker. Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Associated Press. 22 July 1975. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  39. ^ a b Shabad, Theodore (24 March 1965). "Soviet Spacemen Get Big Welcome". The Tennessean. Nashville, Tennessee. The New York Times News Service. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  40. ^ a b "Биография космонавта Алексея Леонова" [Biography of cosmonaut Alexei Leonov]. ТАСС (in Russian). 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  41. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 02.03.2000 г. № 457" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 02.03.2000, No. 457]. Kremlin (in Russian).
  42. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 12 апреля 2011 года № 434 «О награждении орденом Дружбы»" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of April 12, 2011 No. 434 "On awarding the Order of Friendship"] (PDF). Kremlin (in Russian).
  43. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 22.05.2014 г. № 357" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 22, 2014 No. 357]. Kremlin (in Russian).
  44. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 29.05.2019 № 240" [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 29, 2019 No. 240]. Official Internet Portal legal information (in Russian). 30 May 2019.
  45. ^ "УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ № 450/2011" [Declaration of the President of Ukraine No. 450/2011]. Administration of the President of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 9 July 2014.
  46. ^ "Edwards Commander Awarded Medals". The Bakersfield Californian. Bakersfield, California. 1 October 1976. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ Ritchie 1984, p. 282.
  48. ^ "Alexei A. Leonov, USSR, Inducted in 1976". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  49. ^ "Apollo–Soyuz Crew". San Diego Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  50. ^ "Премию Людвига Нобеля возродили". tvkultura.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  51. ^ Воронов, Алексей (31 March 2015). "История возрожденной российской премии Людвига Нобеля — история страны". Известия. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  52. ^ "The Elmer A. Sperry Award" (PDF). Sperryaward.org. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  53. ^ a b "Кому и за что вручается Орден Святой Анны" [Who and for what is awarded the Order of St. Anne]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  54. ^ ""Earth and Space by Alexei Leonov." On the 80th anniversary of the legendary astronaut". Russian Academy of Arts (in Russian). 2014.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]