|Khan of Tümed|
|Died||1582 (aged 74–75)|
|Father||Bars Bolud Jinong|
Altan Khan of the Tümed (1507–1582; Mongolian: Алтан хан; Chinese: 阿爾坦汗), whose given name was Anda (ᠠᠨᠳᠠ in Mongolian; 俺答 in Chinese), was the leader of the Tümed Mongols, Shunyi Wang (Prince of Shunyi, Chinese: 顺义王) of Ming dynasty China, and de facto ruler of the Right Wing, or western tribes, of the Mongols. He was the grandson of Dayan Khan (1464–1543), a descendant of Kublai Khan (1215–1294), who had managed to unite a tribal league between the Khalkha Mongols in the north and the Chahars (Tsakhars) to the south. His name means "Golden Khan" in the Mongolian language.
Consolidation of power
Borjigin Barsboladiin Altan was the second son of Bars Bolud Jinong, and a grandson of Batumongke Dayan Khan who had re-unified the Mongolian nobility in an attempt to regain the glory of the Yuan dynasty. Altan Khan ruled the Tümed and belonged to the Right Wing of the Mongols along with his elder brother Gün Bilig, who ruled the Ordos. After Gün Bilig's death in 1542, Altan became the de facto leader of the whole of the Right Wing and was given the title, "Tösheetü Sechen Khan".
When Bodi Alagh Khan, the Khagan of the Mongols from the Chahar, died in 1547, Altan forced Bodi Alagh's successor Darayisung Küdeng Khan to flee eastward. In 1551 Darayisung made a compromise with Altan in exchange for giving the title "Gegeen Khan" to him. Altan Khan, who controlled the Ordos tumen of the Huang He or Yellow River was well placed to keep pressure on the Chinese and the Oirat Mongols in Tibet while developing both agriculture and trade. In 1571, Altan Khan was granted the title Prince of Shunyi ("Obedient and Righteous prince") from the Longqing Emperor, the 12th emperor of Ming dynasty. He swore that he would be part of China forever and never betray.
Altan Khan also founded the city of Köke Khota (Hohhot, meaning "The Blue City"), now the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. There is an impressive statue of him in one of the city's main squares.
Alliance with the Gelug
Altan Khan is particularly remembered for establishing ties between Mongolia and the religious leaders of the Tibetan Gelug order. Altan Khan first invited 3rd Dalai Lama to Tümed in 1569, but apparently he refused to go and sent a disciple instead, who reported back to him about the great opportunity to spread Buddhist teachings throughout Mongolia. In 1571, Altan Khan got the title Prince of Shunyi ("Obedient and Righteous Prince") from Longqing Emperor (March 4, 1537- July 5, 1572), the 12th emperor of China (Ming dynasty). In 1573, Altan Khan took some Tibetan Buddhist monks prisoner. Prince of Shunyi's capital was given new name Guihua meaning "return to civilization. He became very interested in Gelukpa, and Beijing was happy to provide him with Tibetan lamas, Tibetan scriptures, and translations.
Sonam Gyatso accepted Altan Khan's invitation to Tümed in 1577. Altan Khan later had Thegchen Chonkhor, Mongolia's first monastery, built at the place of the meeting. Also, the ruler of the Khalkha Mongols, Abtai Sain Khan, rushed to Tümed to meet the Dalai Lama. The Erdene Zuu Monastery (Mongolian: Эрдэнэ Зуу) was built by him in 1586, at the site of the former Mongol capital of Karakorum following his adoption of Buddhism as the state religion. This monastery is also often (wrongly) referred to as the first monastery in Mongolia and it grew into a massive establishment. In 1792, it contained 62 temples and some 10,000 lamas.
Sonam Gyatso publicly announced that he was a reincarnation of the Tibetan Sakya monk Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235–1280) who converted Kublai Khan, while Altan Khan was a reincarnation of Kublai Khan (1215–1294), the famous ruler of the Mongol Empire and Emperor of China, and that they had come together again to cooperate in propagating the Buddhist religion.
Altan Khan designated Sonam Gyatso as "Dalai" (a translation into Mongolian of the name Gyatso, meaning "ocean"). As a result, Sonam Gyatso became known as the Dalai Lama which, since then, has been used as a title – frequently translated into English as "Ocean of Wisdom". The title was also posthumously given to Gendun Drup and Gendun Gyatso, who were considered Sonam Gyatso's previous incarnations. Thus, Sonam Gyatso was recognized as being already the 3rd Dalai Lama.
Sonam Gyatso never returned to Tibet but remained proselytizing among the Mongols. The Tümed Mongols and their allies were brought into the Gelug tradition, which was to become the main spiritual orientation of the Mongols in the ensuing centuries.
Sonam Gyatso's message was that the time had come for Mongolia to embrace Buddhism, that from that time on there should be no more animal sacrifices, there must be no taking of life, animal or human, military action must be pursued only with purpose and the immolation of women on the funeral pyres of their husbands must be abolished. He also secured an edict abolishing the Mongol custom of blood-sacrifices. "These and many other such laws were set forth by Gyalwa Sonam Gyatso and were instituted by Altan Khan."
A massive program of translating Tibetan (and Sanskrit) texts into Mongolian was commenced, with letters written in silver and gold and paid for by the Dalai Lama's Mongolian devotees. Within 50 years virtually all Mongols had become Buddhist, with tens of thousands of monks, who were members of the Gelug order, loyal to the Dalai Lama.
When Sonam Gyatso died in 1588, his incarnation – and thus, the new Dalai Lama – was Altan Khan's great-grandson.
Altan Khan used his military strength to threaten the Ming dynasty of China. He led raids into inland China in 1529, 1530 and 1542 returning with plunder and livestock. In 1550 he crossed the Great Wall and besieged Beijing, setting the suburbs on fire. In 1552 Altan Khan gained control of the remains of Karakorum, the old Mongol capital. The Chinese emperor was forced to grant special trading rights to the khanate, after signing a peace treaty with him in 1571, allowing it to trade horses for silks, which further strengthened it economically. The Chinese also granted him the title of Prince of Shunyi ("Obedient and Righteous prince"). During his reign he made several successful military campaigns to the west against rebellious Oirats, Kazakhs, and Kyrgyz, bringing them back under his rule.
Altan Khan died in 1582, only four years after meeting with the Third Dalai Lama. He was 74 or 75 years old at the time.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
- Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, pp. 81-82. Stanford University Press, Stanford California. ISBN 978-0-8047-0806-7 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-8047-0901-9 (paper).
- Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet & its History. Second Edition, Revised and Updated, p. 41. Shambhala, Boston & London. ISBN 978-0-87773-376-8 (pbk).
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. 12, p. 373.
- Sampildondov Chuluun; Uradyn E. Bulag (28 June 2013). The Thirteenth Dalai Lama on the Run (1904-1906): Archival Documents from Mongolia. BRILL. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-90-04-25455-8.
- Peter C Perdue (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
- 蔡東藩 (9 May 2015). 明史通俗演義: 蔡東藩歷史演義-明朝. 谷月社. pp. 440–. GGKEY:K7LK6AK932B.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. I, p. 275.
- Norbu, Thubten Jigme and Turnbull, Colin M. (1968). Tibet: An account of the history, religion and the people of Tibet, p. 218. Touchstone Books, New York. ISBN 978-0-671-20099-2 (hbk); ISBN 978-0-671-20559-1 (pbk).
- Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, p. 81. Stanford University Press, Stanford California. ISBN 978-0-8047-0806-7 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-8047-0901-9 (paper).
- McKay 2003, p. 18
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 144. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- "Erdene Zuu Monastery" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) accessed 7 December 2007.
- Discover Mongolia Archived 13 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 7 December 2007.
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 146. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- McKay 2003, p. 19
- Norbu, Thubten Jigme and Turnbull, Colin M. (1968). Tibet: An account of the history, religion and the people of Tibet, p. 219. Touchstone Books, New York. ISBN 978-0-671-20099-2 (hbk); ISBN 978-0-671-20559-1 (pbk).
- Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, p. 82. Stanford University Press, Stanford California. ISBN 978-0-8047-0806-7 (cloth); ISBN 978-0-8047-0901-9 (paper).
- Mullin, Glenn H. (2001). The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation, p. 146. Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe, New Mexico. ISBN 978-1-57416-092-5.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. 12, p. 374.
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 141. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. 9, p. 601.
- Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, p. 143. Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.
- Vesna A. Wallace (2015). Buddhism in Mongolian History, Culture, and Society. Oxford University Press. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-19-995866-5.