Category:Ancient Egyptian mummies
Pages in category "Ancient Egyptian mummies"
The following 88 pages are in this category, out of 88 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 88 pages are in this category, out of 88 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Animal mummy – Animal mummification originated in ancient Egypt. It was a part of Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and pets. Bast, the cat goddess is an example of one such deity, in 1888, an Egyptian farmer digging in the sand near Istabl Antar discovered a mass grave of felines, ancient cats that were mummified and buried in pits at great numbers. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, animals were highly respected, in no other culture have animals been as influential in so many aspects of life, nor has any culture depicted animals as often in their artwork or writing. It is estimated that 2 in every 4 or 5 Egyptian hieroglyphs relates to animals, the Egyptian religion taught of life after death. In order to determine a person’s admittance or denial to the afterlife, one of these crucial questions would be whether they had mistreated any animals during their life on earth. Because of this belief, the killing of an animal was considered a serious crime punishable by death. Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian from the 1st century B. C. witnessed the lynching of a Roman who had killed a cat during a visit to Egypt. Understandably, this punishment frightened many Egyptians to the point that if one would happen upon a dead animal, the most common Egyptian pets included cats, dogs, mongooses, monkeys, gazelles, and birds. Many Egyptians loved their pets, and the process of mourning the loss of a loved pet included crying and shaving one’s eyebrows. Ancient Egyptian pets were given names like we name our pets today, pets were often depicted on the tombs of Egyptians, indicating their masters’ affection toward the animals. Specific archaeological findings have confirmed that pets were mummified, the most famous example of this is the Theban Queen Makare’s adult Green Monkey. When her tomb was discovered, there was a small, mummified bundle present at her feet and this puzzled archaeologists because Queen Makare was a High Priestess who had taken a serious vow of celibacy. If this had been her child, it would have meant that she had, at point, broken the oath she had taken as High Priestess. Finally, in 1968, an x-ray was done on the small mummy, similarly, Makare’s half sister, Esemkhet, was discovered buried with a mummified pet—she had a mummified gazelle in her tomb. Prince Tuthmosis of the Dynasty XVIII was also buried with a beloved pet cat was mummified and placed in a stone coffin in his tomb. Another Egyptian, named Hapymen, had his pet dog mummified, wrapped in cloth, at the tomb KV50 in the Valley of Kings, a mummified dog and baboon were discovered buried together, though the owner is unknown. Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be a continuation of this one, in order to bring food to the afterlife, Egyptians would surround human mummies by what are known as victual mummies
2. Amenhotep III – Amenhotep III, also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, Amenhotep III was Thutmoses son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya. His reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son initially ruled as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his own royal name to Akhenaten. The son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya and he was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for almost 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye and their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV, later known as Akhenaten, ultimately succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne. Amenhotep III also may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, Amenhotep III and Tiye may also have had four daughters, Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis or Iset, and Nebetah. They appear frequently on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father, Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu. Amenhotep III elevated two of his four daughters—Sitamun and Isis—to the office of royal wife during the last decade of his reign. Evidence that Sitamun already was promoted to office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and later wife, hence, Amenhotep IIIs marriage to his two daughters should not be considered unlikely based on contemporary views of marriage. Amenhotep III is known to have married several women, Gilukhepa. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign, a daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon, a daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia, Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh, for instance,123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed with his own arrows from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Similarly, five other state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, Gilukhepa. She was the first of many such princesses who would enter the pharaohs household, another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of
3. Djedkare Isesi – Djedkare Isesi was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the eighth and penultimate ruler of the Fifth Dynasty in the late 25th century to mid-24th century BC, during the Old Kingdom period. Djedkare succeeded Menkauhor Kaiu and was in turn succeeded by Unas and his relations to both of these pharaohs remain uncertain, although it is often conjectured that Unas was Djedkares son, owing to the smooth transition between the two. Djedkare likely enjoyed a reign of more than 40 years, which heralded a new period in the history of the Old Kingdom. Breaking with a tradition followed by his predecessors since the time of Userkaf, Djedkare did not build a temple to the sun god Ra, more significantly, Djedkare effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian state administration, the first undertaken since the inception of the system of ranking titles. He also reorganised the funerary cults of his forebears buried in the necropolis of Abusir, Djedkare commissioned expeditions to Sinai to procure copper and turquoise, to Nubia for its gold and diorite and to the fabled Land of Punt for its incense. One such expedition had what could be the earliest recorded instance of oracular divination undertaken to ensure an expeditions success, the word Nub, meaning gold, to designate Nubia is first recorded during Djedkares reign. Under his rule, Egypt also entertained continuing trade relations with the Levantine coast, in particular, one of the earliest depictions of a battle or siege scene was found in the tomb of one of Djedkares subjects. Djedkare was buried in a pyramid in Saqqara named Nefer Djedkare, the burial chamber still held Djedkares mummy when it was excavated in the 1940s. Examinations of the revealed that he died in his fifties. Following his death, Djedkare was the object of a cult that lasted at least until the end of the Old Kingdom and he seemed to have been held in particularly high esteem during the mid-Sixth Dynasty, whose pharaohs lavished rich offerings on his cult. Archaeological evidence suggests the existence of this funerary cult throughout the much later New Kingdom period. Djedkare was also remembered by the Ancient Egyptians as the king of vizier Ptahhotep, some Egyptologists such as Naguib Kanawati argue that this contributed heavily to the collapse of the Egyptian state during the First Intermediate Period, c.200 years later. These conclusions are rejected by Nigel Strudwick, who says that in spite of Djedkares reforms, Djedkare is well attested in sources contemporaneous with his reign. The tombs of many of his courtiers and family members have been discovered in Giza, Saqqara and they give insights into the administrative reforms that Djedkare conducted during his reign and, in a few cases, even record letters that the king sent to his officials. These letters, inscribed on the walls of tombs, typically present royal praises for the tomb owner, another important source of information about Egypt during the reign of Djedkare Isesi is the Abusir papyri. These are administrative documents, covering a period of 24 years during Djedkares reign, they were discovered in the temples of pharaohs Neferirkare Kakai, Neferefre. In addition to texts, the earliest letters on papyrus preserved to the present day also date to Djedkares reign. Djedkare is attested in four ancient Egyptian king lists, all dating to the New Kingdom, the earliest of these is the Karnak king list, dating to the reign of Thutmose III, where Djedkare is mentioned on the fifth entry
4. Hatshepsut – Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu, Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne the year as a child of about two years old. Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II, Thutmose III’s father. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, according to Egyptologist James Henry Breasted she is also known as the first great woman in history of whom we are informed. Hatshepsut was the daughter and only child of Thutmose I and his primary wife Ahmose and her husband Thutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a secondary wife named Mutnofret, who carried the title Kings daughter and was probably a child of Ahmose I. Hatshepsut and Thutmose II had a daughter named Neferure, Thutmose II fathered Thutmose III with Iset, a secondary wife. Today Egyptologists generally agree that Hatshepsut assumed the position of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was described as having a reign of about 22 years by ancient authors. Josephus and Julius Africanus both quote Manethos king list, mentioning a woman called Amessis or Amensis who has identified as Hatshepsut. In Josephus work, her reign is described as lasting 21 years and nine months, dating the beginning of her reign is more difficult, however. Her fathers reign began in either 1526 or 1506 BC according to the high and low estimates of her reign, the length of the reigns of Tuthmosis I and Tuthmosis II, however, cannot be determined with absolute certainty. With short reigns, Hatshepsut would have ascended the throne 14 years after the coronation of Tuthmosis I, longer reigns would put her ascension 25 years after Tuthmosis Is coronation. Thus, Hatshepsut could have assumed power as early as 1512 BC, or, Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt and this trading expedition to Punt was roughly during Hatshepsuts ninth year of reign. It set out in her name with five ships, each measuring 70 feet long bearing several sails, many trade goods were bought in Punt, notably frankincense and myrrh. Hatshepsuts delegation returned from Punt bearing 31 live myrrh trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage. This was the first recorded attempt to transplant foreign trees and it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her mortuary temple complex. Egyptians also returned with a number of gifts from Punt
5. Neferefre – Neferefre Isi was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, likely the fourth but also possibly the fifth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom period. He was very likely the eldest son of pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai and queen Khentkaus II, there are very few archaeological sources contemporaneous with Neferefres reign, which is now seen by Egyptologists, including Miroslav Verner, to witness a very short reign. In particular, as of 2017, only one inscription dated to his rule is known and it was left by the builders of his pyramid on a corner block at the end of the corridor leading down to the pyramid substructures. Therefore, the inscription is likely to refer to Neferefres first or second year on the throne, Neferefre is present on several Ancient Egyptian king lists, all dating to the New Kingdom period. During the subsequent reign of Ramses II, Neferefre appears on the Saqqara Tablet, this time after Shepseskare, owing to a scribal error, Neferefres name on this list is given as Khanefere or Neferkhare. Neferefres prenomen was most likely also given on the Turin canon, which dates to the period as the Saqqara tablet. Neferefre was also mentioned in the Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ptolemy II by the Egyptian priest Manetho. No copies of the Aegyptiaca have survived to this day and it is now known only through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius, Africanus relates that the Aegyptiaca mentioned the succession Nefercherês → Sisirês → Cherês for the mid Fifth Dynasty. Nefercherês, Sisirês and Cherês are believed to be the forms for Neferirkare, Shepseskare and Neferkhare. Thus, Manethos reconstruction of the Fifth Dynasty is in agreement with the Saqqara tablet. In Africanus epitome of the Aegyptiaca, Cherês is reported to have reigned for 20 years, Neferefre was, in all likeliness, the eldest son of his predecessor pharaoh Neferirkare Kakai with queen Khentkaus II. This is shown by a relief on a limestone slab depicting Neferirkare and his wife Khentkaus with the kings eldest son Ranefer and this indicates that Ranefer was Neferefres name when he was still only a crown prince, that is before his accession to the throne. Neferirkare and Khentkaus had at least another son, the future king Nyuserre Ini, until 2014, no consort of Neferefre was known. Late in this however, the mastaba of Khentkaus III was discovered by archaeologists from the Czech Institute of Egyptology working in Abusir. The location and date of the tomb as well as found in it strongly suggest that Khentkaus III was Neferefres queen. In addition, Khentkaus III was also called Kings mother by inscriptions in her tomb, krejčí notes the lack of kings son title in relation to Kakaibaef however, thereby emphasizing the conjectural nature of Verners assertion. In this scenario, Neferefre would be the father of Nyuserre and this view was challenged at the turn of the millennium, most notably by Verner, who is responsible for the archaeological excavations of the Fifth Dynasty royal necropolis of Abusir since 1976. Firstly, there is the relief, mentioned earlier, showing that Neferefre was in all likeliness Neferirkares eldest son, secondly, excavations of Neferefres pyramid have yielded his mummy, which showed that he was 18 to 20 years old at the death of Neferirkare
6. Ramesses II – Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great and Ozymandias, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He often is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and his successors and later Egyptians called him the Great Ancestor. Ramesses II led several expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali, at age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months, most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31,1279 BC, estimates of his age at death vary,90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, his later was moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. He is known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, The justice of Rê is powerful – chosen of Rê. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on campaigns to restore possession of previously held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites. He also was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya, during Ramesses IIs reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men, a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, a stele from Tanis speaks of their having come in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them. In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh also defeated the Lukka, the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. The inscription is almost totally illegible, due to weathering, additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt, Ramesses then plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria, the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypts frontiers into Syria, and to emulate his father Seti Is triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier and he also constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses