Category:Murdered Mexican Americans
Pages in category "Murdered Mexican Americans"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Manuel Gregorio Acosta – Manuel Acosta was a Mexican-American painter and illustrator who was born into an impoverished family in Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico, on May 9,1921. His father, Ramón P. Acosta, had fought in the Mexican Revolution with Pancho Villa, the family moved to El Paso, Texas, United States, in 1924. Manuel Acosta served in the United States Air Force during World War II, in the fall of 1946 he attended the College of Mines and Metallurgy, where he studied drawing and sculpture under sculptor Urbici Soler. In 1952 he became an apprentice to painter Peter Hurd on a project about pioneer Texas located at the West Texas Museum in Lubbock. He spent a year at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles and six months at the University of California, Santa Barbara, before establishing his home and studio in El Paso, Texas. He was bludgeoned with a pipe and murdered on October 25,1989 by a drunken Mexican national and is buried in the United States at Fort Bliss National Cemetery. Grauer, Paula L. & Michael R. Grauer, Dictionary of Texas Artists, 1800-1945, College Station, El Paso Museum of Art, in American Art Review, December,2001. Curlee, Kendall, ACOSTA, MANUEL GREGORIO, Handbook of Texas Online, published by the Texas State Historical Association
2. Kiki Camarena – Enrique S. Camarenas nickname was Kike in Spanish, and Kiki in English. From 1973–1975, Camarena served in the United States Marine Corps, after which he joined the DEA, at their Calexico, California, in 1977, Camarena moved to the agencys Fresno office, and in 1981, he was assigned to their Guadalajara office in Mexico. Camarena had also worked as a firefighter and police investigator before joining the DEA in Calexico. Camarena, who had identified as the source of the leak, was abducted in broad daylight on February 7,1985 by corrupt police officers working for drug lord Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo. Camarena was tortured at Gallardos ranch over a 30-hour period, then murdered and his skull, jaw, nose, cheekbones and windpipe were crushed, his ribs were broken, and a hole was drilled into his head with a power drill. He had been injected with amphetamines and other drugs, most likely to ensure that he remained conscious while being tortured, Camarenas body was found in a rural area outside the small town of La Angostura, in the state of, on March 5,1985. Camarenas torture and murder prompted a reaction from the U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration and launched Operation Leyenda. A special unit was dispatched to coordinate the investigation in Mexico, investigators soon identified Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo and his two close associates, Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo and Rafael Caro Quintero, as the primary suspects in the kidnapping. Under pressure from the U. S. A. to President Miguel de la Madrids government, Fonseca and Quintero were quickly apprehended, the United States government pursued a lengthy investigation of Camarenas murder. Despite vigorous protests from the Mexican government, Álvarez was brought to trial in Los Angeles in 1992, after presentation of the governments case, the judge ruled that there was insufficient evidence to support a guilty verdict, and charges were dropped. Álvarez subsequently initiated a suit against the U. S. government. The case eventually reached the U. S. Supreme Court, the four other defendants, Vásquez Velasco, Juan Ramón Matta-Ballesteros, Juan José Bernabé Ramírez, and Rubén Zuno Arce, were tried and found guilty of Camarenas kidnapping. Arce had known ties to corrupt Mexican officials, and Mexican officials were implicated in covering up the murder, Mexican police had destroyed evidence on Camarenas body. A CIA spokesman responded that “its ridiculous to suggest that the CIA had anything to do with the murder of a U. S. federal agent or the escape of his killer. ”Camarena received numerous awards while with the DEA, and he received the Administrators Award of Honor. In Fresno, the DEA hosts a golf tournament named after him. The nationwide annual Red Ribbon Week, which school children. In 2004, the Enrique S. Camarena Foundation was established in Camarenas memory, Camarenas wife Mika and son Enrique Jr. Camarena is survived by his wife Mika and their three sons. Several movies about Camarena were produced in Mexico, and he is referenced in others, in November 1988, TIME magazine featured Camarena on the cover
3. Murder of Selena – Selena Quintanilla-Pérez was an American singer who achieved international fame as a member of Selena y Los Dinos and for her subsequent solo career. Her father and manager, Abraham Quintanilla Jr. appointed Yolanda Saldívar president of Selenas fan club in 1991 after Saldívar had repeatedly asked permission to start one, in January 1994, Saldívar was promoted to manager of the singers boutiques. Selenas employees, fashion designer, and cousin began complaining about Saldívars management style, in January 1995, Quintanilla, Jr. began receiving telephone calls and letters from angry fans who had sent membership payments and had received nothing in return. He began investigating their complaints and found evidence that Saldívar had embezzled $60,000 from the fan club, after the Quintanilla family confronted her, Saldívar bought a gun, lured Selena to a motel room, and shot her in the back. Although doctors tried to revive Selena, she was pronounced dead from loss of blood, all major television networks in the United States interrupted their regular programming to break the news. The publics reaction to Selenas death was compared to those followed the deaths of John Lennon, Elvis Presley. Some Americans who were unaware of the singer and her popularity criticized the attention she, on April 12, 1995—two weeks after her death—then-Texas governor George W. Bush declared her birthday Selena Day in Texas. Some Americans were offended because Selena Day that year coincided with Easter, at the time of Selenas death, Tejano music was one of the most popular Latin music subgenres in the United States. She was called the Queen of Tejano music and became the first Latino artist to have a predominantly Spanish-language album—Dreaming of You —debut, after her death, the popularity of Tejano music waned. During Saldívars trial for the murder—called the trial of the century, Saldívar was found guilty of murder and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Jennifer Lopez was cast as Selena in a 1997 biopic film about her life, Selena was born on April 16,1971 in Lake Jackson, Texas, to Abraham Quintanilla, Jr. a former musician, and Marcella Ofelia Quintanilla. Selena was introduced to the industry by her father, who saw a way back into the music business after discovering Selenas perfect timing. He quickly organized his children into a band called Selena y Los Dinos, which included A. B. Quintanilla III on bass, Suzette Quintanilla on drums, and Selena as the lead singer. The band became the main source of income after they were evicted from their home during the Texas oil bust of 1982. They filed for bankruptcy after Quintanilla, Jr. s Mexican restaurant suffered as a result of the oil bust, the family moved to Corpus Christi, Texas, and Selena y Los Dinos began recording music professionally. In 1984, the band released its first LP record, Selena y Los Dinos, with a small, Quintanilla, Jr. wanted his children to record Tejano music—a male-dominated music genre popularized by Mexican Americans in the United States. Selenas popularity as a singer grew after she won the Tejano Music Award for Female Vocalist of the Year in 1987 and she landed her first major record deal with Capitol EMI Latin in 1989. Yolanda Saldívar became a fan of Tejano music in the mid-1980s and she originally disliked Selena because Selena had won awards that Saldívars favorite Tejano musicians were nominated in
4. Ramon Novarro – Novarro was promoted by MGM as a Latin lover and became known as a sex symbol after the death of Rudolph Valentino. Novarro was born José Ramón Gil Samaniego on February 6,1899 in Durango City, Durango, Mexico, to Dr. Mariano N. Samaniego, the family moved to Los Angeles, California, to escape the Mexican Revolution in 1913. Novarross direct ancestors came from the Castilian town of Burgos from where two brothers emigrated to the New World in the seventeenth century, Allan Ellenberger, Novarros biographer, writes, he Samaniegos were an influential and well-respected family in Mexico. Many Samaniegos had prominent positions in the affairs of state and were held in esteem by the president. Ramons grandfather, Mariano Samaniego, was a physician in Juarez. Known as a charitable and outgoing man, he was once a governor for the State of Chihuahua and was the first city councilman of El Paso. Ramons father, Dr. Mariano N. Samaniego, was born in Juarez and attended school in Las Cruces. After receiving his degree in dentistry at the University of Pennsylvania, he moved to Durango, Mexico, in 1891 he married Leonor Pérez-Gavilán, the beautiful daughter of a prosperous landowner. The Pérez-Gaviláns were a mixture of Spanish and Aztec blood, and according to legend, they were descended from Guerrero. The family estate was called the Garden of Eden, thirteen children were born there, Emilio, Guadalupe, Rosa, Ramón, Leonor, Mariano, Luz, Antonio, José, a stillborn child, Carmen, Ángel and Eduardo. At the time of the revolution in Mexico, the family moved from Durango to Mexico City, three of Ramóns sisters, Guadalupe, Rosa, and Leonor, became nuns. He was a cousin of the Mexican actresses Dolores del Río. He entered films in 1917 in bit parts and he supplemented his income by working as a singing waiter. His friends, actor and director Rex Ingram and his wife, the actress Alice Terry, began to promote him as a rival to Rudolph Valentino, from 1923, he began to play more prominent roles. His role in Scaramouche brought him his first major success, in 1925, Novarro achieved his greatest success in Ben-Hur. His revealing costumes caused a sensation and he was elevated into the Hollywood elite. As did many stars, Novarro engaged Sylvia of Hollywood as a therapist, with Valentinos death in 1926, Novarro became the screens leading Latin actor, though ranked behind his MGM contemporary, John Gilbert, as a leading man. He was popular as a swashbuckler in action roles and considered one of the romantic lead actors of his day
5. Selena – Selena Quintanilla-Pérez was an American singer, songwriter, spokesperson, model, actress, and fashion designer. Called the Queen of Tejano music, her contributions to music, Billboard magazine named her the top Latin artist of the 90s and the best selling Latin artist of the decade. Media outlets called her the Tejano Madonna for her clothing choices and she also ranks among the most influential Latin artists of all-time and is credited for catapulting a music genre into the mainstream market. Selena began recording professionally in 1982, in the 1980s, she was often criticized and was refused bookings at venues across Texas for performing Tejano music—a male-dominated music genre. However, her popularity grew after she won the Tejano Music Award for Female Vocalist of the Year in 1987, Selena signed with EMI Latin in 1989 and released her self-titled debut album the same year, while her brother became her principal music producer and songwriter. Selena released Entre a Mi Mundo, which peaked at one on the U. S. Billboard Regional Mexican Albums chart for 19 nonconsecutive weeks. The albums commercial success led music critics to call the album the breakthrough recording of her musical career, one of its singles, Como La Flor, became one of her most popular signature songs. Live. won Best Mexican/American Album at the 1994 Grammy Awards, in 1994, Selena released Amor Prohibido, which became one of the best-selling Latin albums in the United States. It was critically acclaimed as being responsible for Tejano musics first marketable era as it one of the most popular Latin music subgenres at the time. Selena began recording English-language songs for her crossover album, aside from music, Selena was active in her community and donated her time to civic causes. Coca-Cola appointed her its spokesperson in Texas, Selena became a sex icon, she was often criticized for wearing suggestive outfits in light of her comments about being a role model for young women. Selena and her guitarist, Chris Pérez, eloped in April 1992 after her father raised concerns over their relationship, on March 31,1995, Selena was shot dead by Yolanda Saldívar, her friend and former employee of her Selena Etc. boutiques. Saldívar is currently incarcerated at the Mountain View Unit in Gatesville, two weeks later, George W. Bush—governor of Texas at the time—declared Selenas birthday Selena Day in Texas. Her posthumous crossover album, Dreaming of You, debuted atop the Billboard 200, in 1997, Warner Bros. released Selena, a film about her life and career, which starred Jennifer Lopez as Selena and Lupe Ontiveros as Saldívar. As of 2012, Selena has sold over 60 million albums worldwide, Selena Quintanilla was born on April 16,1971, in Lake Jackson, Texas. She was the youngest child of Marcella Ofelia Quintanilla who had Cherokee ancestry and Abraham Quintanilla, Selena was raised as a Jehovahs Witness. Quintanilla, Jr. noticed her musical abilities when she was six years old and he told People magazine, Her timing, her pitch were perfect, I could see it from day one. In 1980 in Lake Jackson, Quintanilla, Jr. opened his first Tex-Mex restaurant, Papa Gayos, the following year, the restaurant was forced to close after a recession caused by the 1980s oil glut
6. Sleepy Lagoon murder – Díaz was taken by ambulance to Los Angeles County General Hospital, where he died shortly after, never having regained consciousness. The hospital autopsy showed that he was inebriated from a party the night and had a fracture at the base of his skull. This might have been caused by repeated falls or an automobile accident, the cause of his death remains a mystery to this day. However, Los Angeles Police were quick to arrest 17 Mexican-American youths as suspects, despite insufficient evidence, the young men were held in prison, without bail, on charges of murder. The trial ended on January 13,1943, under Judge Charles W. Fricke, nine of the defendants were convicted of second-degree murder and sentenced to serve time in San Quentin Prison. The rest of the suspects were charged with offenses and incarcerated in Los Angeles County Jail. The convictions were reversed on appeal in 1944, the case is considered a precursor to the Zoot Suit Riots of 1943. Sleepy Lagoon was a reservoir beside the Los Angeles River that was frequented by Mexican-Americans and its name came from the popular song Sleepy Lagoon, by big band leader and trumpeter Harry James. The reservoir was located near the city of Maywood at approximately 5500 Slauson Avenue in Bell, the morning of August 2,1942, José Díaz was found unconscious and later died in the hospital. The autopsy revealed that Díaz was intoxicated and that death was the result of blunt head trauma and they suspected that rival Pachuco gang fights were the cause of Díazs death. The resulting criminal trial is now viewed as lacking in the fundamental requirements of due process. Seventeen Latino youths were indicted on the charges and placed on trial. The courtroom was small and during the trial the defendants were not allowed to sit near, or to communicate with, their attorneys. Every time a name was mentioned by a witness or the attorney, regardless of how damning the statement was. Judge Fricke also permitted the chief of the Foreign Relations Bureau of the Los Angeles sheriffs office, the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee was a community organization made up of Los Angeles community members and activists who came together to support the defendants. The SLDC was also known as The Citizens Committee for the Defense of Mexican-American Youth, the committee was labeled a Communist front organization by the California state legislatures Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities headed by Jack Tenney. The SLDCs mission was to mount a civil rights crusade so that these Mexican-American defendants might have a measure of justice under the Constitution. The SLDC utilized their contacts with influential community members to promote their cause, after Judge Frickes verdict in January, the Mexican-American youths were imprisoned without evidence and because they were Mexican and dangerous, ipso facto
7. Murder of Joe Campos Torres – Jose Campos Torres was a 23-year-old American Vietnam veteran who was beaten by several Houston police officers and subsequently died. His death sparked protests and the outcome of the trial was met with rioting, Torres had been arrested for disorderly conduct at a bar in Houstons predominantly Hispanic East End neighborhood. The six police officers who responded took Torres to a spot called “The Hole” next to the Buffalo Bayou, the officers then took Torres to the city jail, who refused to process him due to his injuries. They were ordered to him to Ben Taub General Hospital, but instead of doing so. Torres’s body was found two days later, officers Terry Denson and Steven Orlando were tried on state murder charges. They were convicted of negligent homicide and received one year of probation, Denson, Orlando and Officer Joseph Janish were later convicted of federal civil rights violations in 1978, and served nine months in prison. Those sentences sparked riots in Moody Park in Houstons Near Northside neighborhood, on the 1st anniversary of his death, in which protesters fired on police, EMS, police were there day and night battling the protesters and were authorized deadly force against those firing upon first responders. List of killings by law enforcement officers in the United States
8. Jaime Zapata – He was one of the two agents that were ambushed in a part of the country that is increasingly under the influence of drug violence. Zapata was born in Brownsville, Texas, United States, a border city directly north across Matamoros, Tamaulipas and he was one of five brothers, all in the field of criminal justice. Zapata entered on duty with Customs and Border Protection on February 6,2006, Zapata was a member of the U. S. After his graduation Zapata was assigned to the Yuma, Arizona Border Patrol Station, homeland Security Investigations special agents, Jaime Zapata and Víctor Ávila, were traveling from Laredo, Texas to Mexico City on an assignment for U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. As they drove through the state of San Luis Potosí. The two vehicles that came up behind them were at a rate of speed, and were described as driving aggressively. One vehicle passed the agents’ Suburban, while other gunmen started to fire at their vehicle, when Zapata shifted the vehicle into park, its doors automatically unlocked. The Zeta gunmen pulled open the side door and tried to drag Zapata out. The agents, however, managed to crack the windows to talk with the assailants, the agents hoped to reason with the gunmen—as many as 15 of them—who surrounded the vehicle. According to congressman McCaul, the agents said Were Americans, were diplomats, the gunmen then fled, and Ávila was able to use his cellphone to call for help. Dying, Zapata managed to put the car in gear and drive away before collapsing at the wheel, soon afterwards, a Mexican federal police helicopter arrived where the two agents were. Ávila was shot twice in the leg, and was sent to a hospital in the Houston. Jaime Zapata, however, gravely injured from three bullet wounds, died before the authorities could aid him with medical treatment. According to federal sources, the took place at a fake military checkpoint established by the gunmen. The captured individuals allegedly involved in the attack revealed through their interviews that they had mistaken the agents for a drug cartel. Moreover, the plates also indicated U. S. officials were on board. Texas Congressman Michael McCaul mentioned that the gunmen opened fire at the agents after they had identified themselves as U. S. diplomats. Five months after the slaying of Jaime Zapata, a report from the White House noted that Zapatas family demanded to know the source of the used in the attack