Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union

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Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union

Съезд Советов Советского Союза
 Soviet Union
Coat of arms or logo
Established28 July 1922
Disbanded5 December 1936
Preceded byCongresses of Soviet republics
Succeeded bySupreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
Chairman of the Presidium of the Congress
Indirect elections

The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union (Russian: Съезд Советов Советского Союза), was the supreme governing body in the Soviet Union since the formation of the USSR (30 December 1922) and until adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution.[1] It is not the same as the All-Russian Congress of Soviets which governed the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic


Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union was composed of representatives from the councils of all the Soviet republics on the following basis: from the City Council - 1 member from 25 thousand voters, from provincial (regional, territorial) and Republican congresses - 1 member from the 125 thousand residents. Delegates to the All-Union Congress were elected at the provincial (regional, territorial) autonomous republican congresses of the Soviets, or (if republic did not have provincial (and then provincial, regional) congresses) - directly at the Congress of Soviets of the union republic.


The exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress of Soviets consists of:

  • Amending of the Constitution of the USSR.
  • Admission of new republics into the USSR.
  • Establishment of the principles of plans for development of the Soviet economy and State budget of the USSR, as well as approval of general principles of current legislation.

Congress of the Soviets shall determine the general direction of all public bodies, elect a Central Executive Committee of the USSR, responsible to Congress accountable to it.

The only chairman of the Presidium of the Congress was Mikhail Kalinin.


First All-Union Congress of Soviets[edit]

This was held on was held on 30 December 1922 in Moscow with delegates from Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. They agreed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.

Second Congress of the Soviets of the USSR[edit]

The Second Congress of the Soviets of the USSR was held in January 1924.


  1. ^ David A. Law, Russian Civilization, New York: Arno Press, 1975, p. 145, 161, 178, 286.