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Congress of the Union

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Congress of the Union
Congreso de la Unión
LXIV Legislature
Seal of the Congress
Type
Type
Houses Senate
Chamber of Deputies
History
Founded September 28, 1821 (1821-09-28)
Structure
Seats 628
(500 Deputies)
(128 Senators)
Mexican Senate 2018.svg
Senate political groups

Government (70)

  •      MRN (58)
  •      PT (7)
  •      PES (5)

Opposition (58)

  •      PAN (22)
  •      PRI (14)
  •      PRD (9)
  •      MC (7)
  •      PVEM (5)
  •      PNA (1)
Mexican Chamber of Deputies 2018 elections.svg
Chamber of Deputies political groups

Government (312)

  •      MRN (193)
  •      PT (61)
  •      PES (58)

Opposition (188)

  •      PAN (79)
  •      PRI (42)
  •      MC (26)
  •      PRD (23)
  •      PVEM (17)
  •      PNA (1)
Authority Title III, Chapter II of the
Political Constitution of
the United Mexican States
Salary $500,000 pesos (Senator)[1][2]
$150,139 pesos (Deputy)[3][4]
Elections
Senate last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Chamber of Deputies last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Motto
La Patria Es Primero
(The Country Is First)
Meeting place
NewSenateBldgMexicoCity.jpg
Senate
Palacio del Senado
Mexico City
San lazaro.jpg
Deputies
Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro
Mexico City
Website
Senate Website
Chamber of Deputies Website
Constitution
Mexican Constitution of 1917

The Congress of the Union (Spanish: Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.

The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators.

Structure[edit]

The Congress is a bicameral body, consisting of two chambers: Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution. The upper chamber is the Senate, "Cámara de Senadores" or "Senado". It comprises 128 seats, 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the other 32 seats are allocated based on proportional representation. The lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, or "Cámara de Diputados". It has 500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote to three-year terms, and the other 200 seats are allocated according to proportional representation.

Elections[edit]

The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 members, each elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies.[5] The 200 PR-seats are distributed generally without taking account the 300 plurality-seats (parallel voting), but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats (a party must win 42% of the votes for the PR-seats to achieve an overall majority).

There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule (not plurality-seats). Also, a party cannot get more than 300 seats overall (even if it has more than 52% of the votes for the PR-seats).

The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies (corresponding to the nation's 31 states and one Federal District) and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis.[6] In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up.

Permanent Committee[edit]

The "Comisión Permanente del Congreso de la Unión", translated variously as the Permanent Committee or Standing Committee, is a body of 19 deputies and 18 senators that is responsible for tasks relating to the Congress when it is in recess.

Term[edit]

It is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress (whose term lasts from 2018 to 2021) is known as the "LXIV Legislature"; the previous Congress (whose term lasted from 2015 to 2018) was the "LXIII Legislature," and so forth. The I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.

Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero popularized the slogan, Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección (effective suffrage, no reelection). In keeping with that long held principle, and until 2014, the 1917 Constitution stated that "Deputies and Senators could not be reelected for the next immediate term."[7]

Reelection[edit]

On February 10, 2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the General Election of 2018, Deputies and Senators will be allowed to run for reelection.[8] Members of the Chamber of Deputies may serve up to four terms of three years each while members of the Senate may serve two terms of six years each; in total, members of both houses will be allowed to remain in office for a total of 12 years.[9]

Last election[edit]

Senate[edit]

Party Constituency Proportional Seats before Seats won +/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
National Regeneration Movement 16,558,781 37.53 44 14 0 58 Increase 58
National Action Party 7,815,247 17.71 16 6 34 22 Decrease 12
Institutional Revolutionary Party 6,965,765 15.79 8 6 55 14 Decrease 41
Party of the Democratic Revolution 2,368,842 5.37 7 2 7 9 Increase 2
Citizens' Movement 2,010,336 4.55 5 2 0 7 Increase 7
Ecologist Green Party 1,951,519 4.42 4 1 5 5 Steady 0
Labor Party 1,674,191 3.79 6 1 19 7 Decrease 12
Social Encounter Party 1,038,325 2.35 5 0 0 5 Increase 5
New Alliance Party 1,037,676 2.35 1 0 0 1 Increase 1
Independents 844,734 1.91 0 8 0 Decrease 8
Write-ins 48,670 0.11
Invalid/blank votes 1,811,180 4.10
Total 44,125,266 100 96 100 32 128 128 0
Registered voters/turnout 89,994,039 63.37 89,994,039
Source: INE (reporting: 92.22%)

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Party District Proportional Seats Before Seats Won +/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
National Regeneration Movement 16,279,807 37.24 109 84 47 193 Increase 146
National Action Party 7,897,600 18.06 38 41 107 79 Decrease 28
Institutional Revolutionary Party 7,161,370 16.38 6 36 204 42 Decrease 162
Party of the Democratic Revolution 2,338,835 5.35 11 12 53 23 Decrease 30
Ecologist Green Party 2,072,983 4.74 7 10 38 17 Decrease 21
Citizens' Movement 1,914,883 4.38 16 10 21 26 Increase 5
Labor Party 1,701,981 3.89 54 7 6 61 Increase 55
New Alliance Party 1,106,428 2.53 1 0 12 1 Decrease 11
Social Encounter Party 1,056,918 2.41 58 0 12 58 Increase 46
Independents 403,108 0.92 0 0 6 0 Decrease 6
Write-ins 49,029 0.11
Invalid/blank votes 1,732,645 3.96
Total 43,715,587 100 300 100 200 500 500 0
Registered voters/turnout 89,994,039 63.1 89,994,039
Source:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manual de Percepciones de los Senadores..." (PDF). Senado de la República. p. 5. Retrieved 19 August 2011. [dead link]
  2. ^ "2 Mil 312 Millones Para Sueldos de Senadores y Diputados en 2010". El Siglo de Torreón. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  3. ^ "Poder Legislativo" (PDF). Cámara de Diputados. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  4. ^ "Consejeros del InfoDF ganan más que Ebrard". La Razón. Retrieved 19 August 2018.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  7. ^ Constitution of 1917, article 50, 59.
  8. ^ "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Artículo 59". Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 October 2003. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  9. ^ Becerra, Bertha (20 May 2014). "Habría reelección de diputados y senadores a partir del 2018". La Prensa (in Spanish). Organización Editorial Mexicana. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 

External links[edit]