Hans Walter Conrad Veidt
22 January 1893
|Died||3 April 1943 (aged 50)|
(m. 1918; div. 1922)
(m. 1923; div. 1932)
Ilona Prager (m. 1933)
Hans Walter Conrad Veidt (//; 22 January 1893 – 3 April 1943) was a German actor best remembered for his roles in films such as Different from the Others (1919), The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), and The Man Who Laughs (1928). After a successful career in German silent films, where he was one of the best-paid stars of Ufa, he and his new Jewish wife Ilona Prager were forced to leave Germany in 1933 after the Nazis came to power. They settled in Britain, where he participated in a number of films, including The Thief of Bagdad (1940), before emigrating to the United States around 1941, which led to him having the role of Major Strasser in Casablanca (1942).
Veidt was born in a bourgeois district of Berlin, in what was then the German Empire, to Amalie Marie (née Gohtz) and Phillip Heinrich Veidt. (Some biographies wrongly state that he was born in Potsdam, probably on the basis of an early claim on his part.) His family was Lutheran.
In 1914, Veidt met actress Lucie Mannheim, with whom he began a relationship. Later in the year Veidt was conscripted into the German Army during World War I. In 1915, he was sent to the Eastern Front as a non-commissioned officer and took part in the Battle of Warsaw. He contracted jaundice and pneumonia, and had to be evacuated to a hospital on the Baltic Sea. While recuperating, he received a letter from Mannheim telling him that she had found work at a theatre in Libau. Intrigued, Veidt applied for the theatre as well. As his condition had not improved, the army allowed him to join the theatre so that he could entertain the troops. While performing at the theatre, he ended his relationship with Mannheim. In late 1916, he was re-examined by the Army and deemed unfit for service; he was given a full discharge in January 1917. Veidt returned to Berlin to pursue his acting career.
From 1916 until his death, Veidt appeared in more than 100 films. One of his earliest performances was as the murderous somnambulist Cesare in director Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), a classic of German Expressionist cinema, with Werner Krauss and Lil Dagover. His starring role in The Man Who Laughs (1928), as a disfigured circus performer whose face is cut into a permanent grin, provided the (visual) inspiration for the Batman villain the Joker, created in 1940 by Bill Finger. Veidt also starred in other silent horror films such as The Hands of Orlac (1924), another film directed by Robert Wiene, The Student of Prague (1926) and Waxworks (1924) in which he played Ivan the Terrible.
Veidt also appeared in Magnus Hirschfeld's film Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others, 1919), one of the earliest films to sympathetically portray homosexuality, although the characters in it do not end up happily. He had a leading role in Germany's first talking picture, Das Land ohne Frauen (Land Without Women, 1929).
He moved to Hollywood in the late 1920s and made a few films, but the advent of talking pictures and his difficulty with speaking English led him to return to Germany. During this period, he lent his expertise to tutoring aspiring performers, one of whom was the later American character actress Lisa Golm.
Veidt fervently opposed the Nazi regime and donated a major portion of his personal fortune to Britain to assist in the war effort. Soon after the Nazi Party took power in Germany, by March 1933, Joseph Goebbels was purging the film industry of anti-Nazi sympathizers and Jews, and so in 1933, a week after Veidt's marriage to Ilona Prager, a Jewish woman, the couple emigrated to Britain before any action could be taken against either of them.
Goebbels had imposed a "racial questionnaire" in which everyone employed in the German film industry had to declare their "race" to continue to work. When Veidt was filling in the questionnaire, he answered the question about what his Rasse (race) was by writing that he was a Jude (Jew). Veidt was not Jewish, but his wife was Jewish, and Veidt would not renounce the woman he loved. Additionally, Veidt, who was opposed to anti-Semitism, wanted to show solidarity with the German Jewish community, who were rapidly being stripped of their rights as German citizens in the spring of 1933. As one of Germany's most popular actors, Veidt had already been informed that if he was prepared to divorce his wife and declare his support for the new regime, he could continue to act in Germany. Several other leading actors who had been opposed to the Nazis before 1933 switched allegiances. In answering the questionnaire by stating he was a Jew, Veidt rendered himself unemployable in Germany, but stated this sacrifice was worth it as there was nothing in the world that would compel him to break with his wife. Upon hearing about what Veidt had done, Goebbels remarked that he would never act in Germany again.
After arriving in Britain, he perfected his English and starred in the title role of the original anti-Nazi version of Lion Feuchtwanger's novel, Jew Süss (1934) directed by German-born US director Lothar Mendes and produced by Michael Balcon for Gaumont-British. He became a British citizen by 1938. By this point multi-lingual, Veidt made films in both French with expatriate French directors and in English, including three of his best-known roles for British director Michael Powell in The Spy in Black (1939), Contraband (1940) and The Thief of Bagdad (1940).
Later career in the US
By 1941, he and Ilona had moved to Hollywood to assist in the British effort in making American films that might persuade the then-neutral and still isolationist US to join the war against the Nazis, who had conquered all of continental Europe and were bombing the United Kingdom at the time. Before leaving the United Kingdom, Veidt gave his life savings to the British government to help finance the war effort. Realizing that Hollywood would most likely typecast him in Nazi roles, he had his contract mandate that they must always be villains.
He starred in a few films, such as George Cukor's A Woman's Face (1941) where he received billing just under Joan Crawford's and Nazi Agent (1942), in which he had a dual role as both an aristocratic German Nazi spy and as the man's twin brother, an anti-Nazi American. His best-known Hollywood role was as the sinister Major Heinrich Strasser in Casablanca (1942), a film which was written and began pre-production before the United States entered World War II.
Conrad Veidt married three times: he first married Augusta Holl, a cabaret entertainer known as "Gussy", on 18 June 1918. They divorced four years later. Gussy later married German actor Emil Jannings. Veidt's second wife Felicitas Radke was from an aristocratic German family; they married in 1923. Their daughter, Vera Viola Maria, called Viola, was born on 10 August 1925. He last married Ilona Prager, a Hungarian Jew called Lily, in 1933; they were together until his death.
Conrad Veidt died on 3 April 1943 of a massive heart attack while playing golf at the Riviera Country Club in Los Angeles with singer Arthur Fields and his personal physician, Dr. Bergman, who pronounced him dead on the scene. Veidt was 50 years old. In 1998, his ashes were placed in a niche of the columbarium at the Golders Green Crematorium in north London. 
- The Path of Death (1917) as Rolf
- When the Dead Speak (1917) as Richard von Worth
- Fear (1917) as Indian Priest
- The Sea Battle (1917)
- The Spy (1917)
- The Mystery of Bangalore (1918) as Dinja
- The Serenyi (1918)
- The Mexican (1918)
- Diary of a Lost Woman (1918) as Dr. Julius
- Jettchen Gebert's Story (1918) as Doktor Friedrich Köstling
- Colomba (1918) as Henrik van Rhyn
- Let There Be Light (1918) as Herr Kramer
- The Story of Dida Ibsen (1918) as Erik Norrensen
- Henriette Jacoby (1918) as Doktor Friedrich Köstling
- Not of the Woman Born (1918) as Satan
- The Japanese Woman (1919) as The Secretary
- Victim of Society (1919) as Prosecutor Chrysander
- Prostitution (1919) as Alfred Werner
- Around the World in Eighty Days (1919) as Phineas Fogg
- Peer Gynt (1919, 2 parts) as Ein fremder Passagier
- Different from the Others (1919) as Paul Körner
- The Ocarina (1919) as Jaap
- Prince Cuckoo (1919) as Karl Kraker
- Madness (1919) as Bankier Lorenzen
- Unheimliche Geschichten (1919) as Der Tod (framing story) / The stranger (ep.1) / The assassin (ep.2) / Traveller (ep.3) / Club president (ep.4) / Husband (ep.5)
- Nocturne of Love (1919) as Frederic Chopin
- Opium (1919) as Dr. Richard Armstrong Jr.
- The Count of Cagliostro (1920) as The Minister
- Figures of the Night (1920) as Clown
- Satan (1920) as Lucifer / Hermit / Gubetta / Grodski
- The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) as Cesare
- The Merry-Go-Round (1920) as Petre Karvan
- Patience (1920) as Sir Percy Parker
- The Night at Goldenhall (1920) as Lord Reginald Golden / Harald Golden
- The Eyes of the World (1920) as Julianne's Lover, Johannes Kay
- Kurfürstendamm (1920) as Teufel
- The Head of Janus (1920) as Dr. Warren / Mr. O'Connor
- Moriturus (1920)
- The Clan (1920)
- Evening – Night – Morning (1920) as Brilburn - Maud's brother
- Manolescu's Memoirs (1920) as Manolescu
- Christian Wahnschaffe (1920) as Christian Wahnschaffe
- Temperamental Artist (1920) as Arpad Czaslo
- People in Ecstasy (1921) as Professor Munk, Komponist
- The Secret of Bombay (1921) as Dichter Tossi
- Journey into the Night (1921) as Der Maler
- Desire (1921) as Ivan - a young Russian dancer
- Love and Passion (1921) as Jalenko, the Gypsy
- The Love Affairs of Hector Dalmore (1921) as Hektor Dalmore
- Country Roads and the Big City (1921) as Raphael, der Geiger
- Danton (1921)
- Lady Hamilton (1921) as Lord Nelson
- The Indian Tomb (1921; released in two parts) as Ayan III / Fürst von Eschnapur / The Majarajah of Bengal
- The Passion of Inge Krafft (1921) as Hendryck Overland
- Lucrezia Borgia (1922) as Cesare Borgia
- Paganini (1923) as Nicolo Paganini
- William Tell (1923) as Hermann Gessler
- Gold and Luck (1923) as The Count
- Carlos and Elisabeth (1924) as Don Carlos
- The Hands of Orlac (1924) as Paul Orlac
- Waxworks (1924) as Ivan the Terrible
- Husbands or Lovers (1924) as Der Liebhaber, ein Dichter
- Count Kostia (1925) as Comte Kostia
- Destiny (1925) as Graf L. M. Vranna
- Ingmar's Inheritance (1925) as Hellgum
- The Fiddler of Florence (1926) as Renées Vater
- The Brothers Schellenberg (1926) as Wenzel Schellenberg / Michael Schellenberg
- Love is Blind (1926) as Dr. Lamare
- Should We Be Silent? (1926) as Paul Hartwig, Maler
- The Woman's Crusade (1926) as Der Staatsanwalt
- The Student of Prague (1926) as Balduin, ein Student
- The Flight in the Night (1926) as Heinrich IV
- The Beloved Rogue (1927) as King Louis XI
- A Man's Past (1927) as Paul La Roche
- The Man Who Laughs (1928) as Gwynplaine / Lord Clancharlie
- Land Without Women (1929) as Dick Ashton, telegrapher
- The Last Performance (1929) as Erik the Great
- The Last Company (1930) as Hauptmann Burk
- Menschen im Käfig (People in the Cage) (1930) as Kingsley
- The Great Longing (1930) as Himself
- The Man Who Murdered (1931) as Marquis de Sévigné
- The Night of Decision (1931) as General Gregori Platoff
- The Congress Dances (1931) as Prince Metternich
- The Other Side (1931) as Hauptmann Stanhope
- Rasputin, Demon with Women (1932) as Grigori Rasputin
- Congress Dances (1932) as Prince Metternich
- The Black Hussar (1932) as Rittmeister Hansgeorg von Hochberg
- Rome Express (1932) as Zurta
- The Empress and I (1933) as Marquis de Pontignac
- F.P.1 (1933) as Maj. Ellissen
- I Was a Spy (1933) as Commandant Oberaertz
- The Wandering Jew (1933) as Matathias
- William Tell (1934) as Gessler (both German- and English-language versions)
- Jew Suss (1934) as Josef Süss Oppenheimer
- Bella Donna (1934) as Mahmoud Baroudi
- The Passing of the Third Floor Back (1935) as The Stranger
- King of the Damned (1935) as Convict 83
- Dark Journey (1937) as Baron Karl Von Marwitz
- Under the Red Robe (1937) as Gil de Berault
- Storm Over Asia (1938) as Erich Keith
- The Chess Player (1938) as Le baron de Kempelen
- The Spy in Black (1939) as Captain Hardt
- Contraband (1940) as Capt. Andersen
- The Thief of Bagdad (1940) as Jaffar
- Escape (1940) as General Kurt von Kolb
- A Woman's Face (1941) as Torsten Barring
- Whistling in the Dark (1941) as Joseph Jones
- The Men in Her Life (1941) as Stanislas Rosing
- All Through the Night (1942) as Ebbing
- Nazi Agent (1942) as Otto Becker / Baron Hugo Von Detner
- Casablanca (1942) as Major Heinrich Strasser
- Above Suspicion (1943) as Hassert Seidel
- Allen, Jarry. Conrad Veidt: from Caligari to Casablanca. boxwood. p. 5. ISBN 978-0940168046.
- "Conrad Veidt: The Cinema's Master". The Conrad Veidt Society.
- "Conrad Veidt". A History of Horror.
- "Conrad Veidt: Cinema's Dark Prince, 1893–1943". Monster Zine. October – December 2000. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
- "Meet Conrad Veidt, Badass". Badass Digest. 9 July 2013.
- Turner Classic Movies Conrad Veidt
- Hull, David Stewart Film in the Third Reich, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973 page 90.
- "Conrad Veidt Obituary," Los Angeles Times, 1943
- "Newspaper reports of reinterrment". Conrad Veidt Society. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Conrad Veidt on Screen
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