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Cultural Landscape (Japan)

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A Cultural Landscape (文化的景観, bunkateki keikan) is a landscape in Japan, which has evolved together with the way of life and geocultural features of a region, and which is indispensable for understanding the lifestyle of the Japanese people, and is recognized by the government of under article 2, paragraph 1, item 5 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (1950). Cultural Landscapes of especially high value may be further designated as Important Cultural Landscapes (重要文化的景観, Jūyō bunkateki keikan); as of May 31, 2017 there are fifty-one such landscapes.[1][2][3][4][5]

Local governments that are in charge of designated Cultural Landscapes can obtain financial assistance from the Agency for Cultural Affairs for surveys and other research, the preparation of preservation plans, maintenance, repair, landscaping, restoration, disaster prevention, and promotional and educational activities.[1][6]

Background[edit]

Research into cultural landscapes began before the Second World War with increasing concern about their disappearance. Historical research into shōen and rural engineering, the scientific investigation of geographic features, and studies for urban and countryside planning have since increased. The movement to protect cultural landscapes has also been influenced by the Law Concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of Historical Natural Features in Ancient Cities (1966), the international trend for recognising "cultural landscapes" under the World Heritage Convention, the designation in 1980 of Mount Hakusan, Mount Ōdaigahara & Mount Ōmine, Shiga Highland and Yakushima as UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserves, the designation of Monuments of Japan, and initiatives such as the 100 selected terraced rice fields of Japan.[7][8] From 2000 to 2003 a study was made to define the concept of "cultural landscape" and identify their distribution, with 2,311 areas identified in the first phase and 502 selected for the second, 180 being of particular importance.[9]

Selection criteria of Important Cultural Landscapes[edit]

Important Cultural Landscapes are designated based on their type as:[1][10]

  1. single-type Cultural Landscapes associated with
    1. agriculture such as rice paddies, farmlands, etc.
    2. man-made grassland or livestock ranching such as hayfields, pastureland, etc.
    3. forests such as timber forests, disaster prevention forests, etc.
    4. fisheries such as fish cultivation rafts, nori seaweed cultivation fields, etc.
    5. water uses such as reservoirs, waterways, harbors, etc.
    6. mining or industrial manufacture such as mines, quarries, groups of workshops, etc.
    7. transportation and communication such as roads, plazas, etc.
    8. residences and settlements such as stonewalls, hedges, coppices attached to premises, etc.
  2. a combination of two or more of the above cultural landscapes.

List of Important Cultural Landscapes[edit]

Usage[edit]

An overview of what is included in the table and the manner of sorting is as follows: the columns (with the exceptions of Remarks and Pictures) are sortable by pressing the arrows symbols.

  • Name: the English name as used by the Agency for Cultural Affairs[6] and Japanese name as registered in the Database of National Cultural Properties[2]
  • Criteria: the selection criteria for the designation as Important Cultural Landscape
  • Remarks: general remarks
  • Location: "town-name prefecture-name"; The column entries sort as "prefecture-name town-name".
  • Year: year of designation as Important Cultural Landscape
  • Picture: picture of (part of) the Important Cultural Landscape

List[edit]

Name Criteria Remarks Location Year Picture
Cultural Landscape along the Sarugawa River resulting from Ainu Tradition and Modern Settlement (アイヌの伝統と近代開拓による沙流川流域の文化的景観, ainu no dentō to kindai kaitaku ni yoru sarugawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan)[11] 2 Litigation over the Nibutani Dam saw the advocacy of Ainu rights in a landmark case (1997).[12] Biratori, Hokkaidō 2007 A simple thatched house.
Farm Village of Hondera area, Ichinoseki (一関本寺の農村景観, ichinoseki hondera no nōson keikan)[13] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Administered from the late Heian period to the early Muromachi period as the domain of the Sutra Repository Steward of Chuson-ji;[14] in the Edo period it formed part of the Sendai domain.[15] Ichinoseki, Iwate 2006 骨寺村荘園(一関本寺)1.jpg
Tono Arakawa Heights Livestock Farm and Tsuchibuchi Yamaguchi Village (遠野 荒川高原牧場 土淵山口集落, Tōno Arakawakōgen bokujō tsuchibuchi yamaguchi shūraku)[16] 1.2 Important historic pasture.[17] Tōno, Iwate 2008/9
Landscape of Movements of Goods and People in Mogami River and the Aterazawa Townscape (最上川の流通・往来及び左沢町場の景観, mogamigawa no ryūtsū ōrai oyobi aterazawamachiba no keikan)[18][19] 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Ōe, Yamagata 2013 重要文化的景観・左沢町場2.jpg
Fluvial landscape at the confluence of the Tone and Watarase Rivers (利根川・渡良瀬川合流域の水場景観, Tonegawa-Watarasegawa gōryūiki mizuba keikan)[20] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Itakura, Gunma 2011 板倉町の水場景観1.JPG
Landscape of the rural villages where gold mining originated in Nishimikawa, Sado (佐渡西三川の砂金山由来の農山村景観, Sado Nishimikawa no sakin yurai no nōsanson keikan)[21] 1.1, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2 Sado, Niigata 2011
Cultural Landscape of the Mining and Mining Town in Aikawa, Sado (佐渡相川の鉱山及び鉱山町の文化的景観, sado aikawa no kōzan oyobi kōzanmachi no bunkateki keikan)[22][23] 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 2 Sado, Niigata 2015
Cultural landscape in Kanazawa. Tradition and culture in the castle town (金沢の文化的景観 城下町の伝統と文化, Kanazawa no bunkateki keikan; jōkamachi no dentō to bunka)[24] 1.5, 1.7, 1.8 Kanazawa is a renowned centre of Japanese crafts.[25] Kanazawa, Ishikawa 2010 Higashiyama-higashi Kanazawa Ishikawa01n4272.jpg
Magaki (bamboo Fence) Village Landscape of Ōzawa and Kami Ōzawa (大沢・上大沢の間垣集落景観, Ōzawa Kami Ōzawa no magaki shūraku keikan)[26][27] 1.1, 1.10, 2 Wajima, Ishikawa 2015 Oosawa-Magaki Settlement 2.jpg
Rice terraces in Obasute (姨捨の棚田, Obasute no tanada)[28] 1.1 Chikuma, Nagano 2010 姨捨棚田4.JPG
Cultural Landscape of Kosuge Village and Mt. Kosuge (小菅の里及び小菅山の文化的景観, kosuge no sato oyobi kosugeyama no bunkateki keikan)[29][30] 1.3, 1.5, 1.8, 2 Iiyama, Nagano 2015 Kosuge settlement 3.JPG
Cultural Landscape of Gifu in the Central Basin of the Nagara River (長良川中流域における岐阜の文化的景観, nagara-gawa chūryūiki ni okeru gifu no bunkateki keikan)[31][32] 1.3, 1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Gifu, Gifu 2014 Remote View of Gifu Castle.jpg
Wetland in Ōmi-hachiman (近江八幡の水郷, Ōmi Hachiman no suigō)[33] 1.5, 1.8 Riverside district of the former castle town.[34] Ōmihachiman, Shiga 2006 Hachimanbori02s3200.jpg
Waterfront of Kaizu, Nishihama, and Chinai in Takashima City (高島市海津・西浜・知内の水辺景観, Takashima-shi Kaizu Nishihama Chinai no mizube keikan)[35] 1.5, 1.7 Takashima, Shiga 2008 重要文化的景観 海津・西浜・知内4.JPG
Waterfront of Harie and Shimofuri in Takashima City (高島市針江・霜降の水辺景観, Takashima-shi Harie Shimofuri no mizube keikan)[36] 1.5, 1.8, 2 Takashima, Shiga 2010 Harie20160508a.JPG
Lakeshore landscape at Sugaura (菅浦の湖岸集落景観, sugaura no kogan shūraku keikan)[37] 1.1, 1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Nagahama, Shiga 2014 重要文化的景観 菅浦1.JPG
Mountain Village landscape of Higashi Kusano (東草野の山村景観, higashi kusano no sanson keikan)[38][39] 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Maibara, Shiga 2014 東草野(曲谷4).JPG
Ōmizo Lakeside Landscape (大溝の水辺景観, Ōmizo no mizube keikan)[40][41] 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Takashima, Shiga 2015 重要文化的景観 大溝3.JPG
Cultural landscape in Uji (宇治の文化的景観, Uji no bunkateki keikan)[42] 2 Uji, Kyoto 2009 River with a bridge and boats.
Cultural landscape of Miyazu Amanohashidate (宮津天橋立の文化的景観, miyazu amanohashidate no bunkateki keikan)[43][44] 1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Miyazu, Kyoto 2014 Amanohashidate view from Mt Moju02s3s4592.jpg
Cultural Landscape of Okazaki in Kyoto (京都岡崎の文化的景観, Kyōto okazaki no bunkateki keikan)[45][46] 1.5, 1.7, 2 Kyoto, Kyoto 2015 重要文化的景観 岡崎(京都)3.JPG
Rural landscape of Hinenosho Ōgi (日根荘大木の農村景観, Hinenosho Ōgi no nōson keikan)[47][48] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Izumisano, Osaka 2013 Ooki1.JPG
Cultural landscape of Ikuno mine and townscape (生野鉱山及び鉱山町の文化的景観, ikuno kōzan oyobi kōzanmachi no bunkateki keikan)[49][50] 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Asago, Hyōgo 2014 Ikuno-Ginzan city1.JPG
Cultural landscape of the Asuka hinterland (奥飛鳥の文化的景観, Oku-Asuka no bunkateki keikan)[51] 1.1, 1.5, 1.8, 2 Asuka, Nara 2011 奥飛鳥 栢森6.JPG
Aragijima Rice Terraces and Rural Mountain Village Landscape of Mita/Shimizu (蘭島及び三田・清水の農山村景観, aragijima oyobi Mita Shimizu no nōsanson keikan)[52][53] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Aridagawa, Wakayama 2013 Aragijima003.JPG
Cultural landscape of Tatara iron manufacturing and rice terraces in Okuizumo (奥出雲たたら製鉄及び棚田の文化的景観, okuizumo tatara seitetsu oyobi tanada no bunkateki keikan)[54][55] 1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2 Okuizumo, Shimane 2014
Rice Terraces and Rural Landscape of Kashihara (樫原の棚田及び農村景観, Kashihara no tanada oyobi nōson keikan)[56] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Kamikatsu, Tokushima 2010 樫原の棚田.JPG
Danbata (terraced fields) in Yusumizugaura (遊子水荷浦の段畑, Yusumizugaura no danbata)[57] 1.1 Uwajima, Ehime 2007
Okuuchi rice terraces, agricultural and mountainous village landscape (奥内の棚田及び農山村景観, Okuuchi no tanada oyobi nōsanson keikan)[58] 1.1 Matsuno, Ehime 2017
Kure port and fishing townscape (久礼の港と漁師町の景観, Kure no minato to ryōshi machi no keikan)[59] 1.4, 1.5 Tosa, Kōchi 2011
Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Villages in the mountains to the headwater region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 源流域の山村, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan genryūiki no sanson)[60] 2 Tsuno, Kōchi 2009
Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Villages and rice terraces in the mountains at the upstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 上流域の山村と棚田, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan jōryūiki no sanson to tanada)[61] 2 Yusuhara, Kōchi 2009
Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Circulation and traffic among agricultural and mountainous villages at the upstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 上流域の農山村と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan jōryūiki no nōsanson to ryūtsū ōrai)[62] 2 Nakatosa, Kōchi 2009
Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Circulation and traffic among agricultural and mountainous villages at the middlestream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 中流域の農山村と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan chūryūiki no nōsanson to ryūtsū ōrai)[63] 2 Shimanto, Kōchi 2009 A river dam made of five concrete pylons and metal shutters.
Cultural landscape in the Shimantogawa River basin. Vocations, circulation and traffic in the downstream region (四万十川流域の文化的景観 下流域の生業と流通・往来, Shimantogawa ryūiki no bunkateki keikan karyūiki no nariwai to ryūtsū ōrai)[64] 2 Shimanto, Kōchi 2009 A wide river in a green mountain landscape.
Rural Landscape of Kubote (求菩提の農村景観, Kubote no nōson keikan)[65] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Fukuoka 2012 20160924kubote001.jpg
Rice terraces in Warabino (蕨野の棚田, Warabino no tanada)[66] 1.1 located on a north facing horseshoe shaped steep slope of Mount Hachiman (八幡岳, hachimandake); area: 34 ha (84 acres), average step height: 3–5 m (9.8–16.4 ft) (up to 8 m (26 ft) max) Karatsu, Saga 2008 Warabino rice terrace 1.jpg
Cultural landscape of Hisaka Island, Gotō (五島市久賀島の文化的景観, Gotō-shi Hisakajima no bunkateki keikan)[67] 1.3, 1.8, 2 Gotō, Nagasaki 2011 久賀島.JPG
Cultural landscape of Kuroshima, Sasebo (佐世保市黒島の文化的景観, Sasebo-shi Kuroshima no bunkateki keikan)[67] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Sasebo, Nagasaki 2011 Kuroshima Village (Tashiro area) 03.jpg
Cultural landscape of the Ojika islands (小値賀諸島の文化的景観, Ojikashotō no bunkateki keikan)[68] 1.7, 1.8 Ojika, Nagasaki 2011 Koujimashrine.jpg
Island landscape at Shinkamigoto (新上五島町崎浦の五島石集落景観, Shinkamigotō-chō Sakiura no gotōishi shūraku keikan)[69] 1.6, 1.8, 2 Shinkamigotō, Nagasaki 2012 Akao village 03.jpg
Cultural landscape of Kitauonome, Shinkamigotō (新上五島町北魚目の文化的景観, Shinkamigotō-chō Kitauonome no bunkateki keikan)[70] 1.2 Shinkamigotō, Nagasaki 2012 Kitauonome Cultural Landscape 01.jpg
Landscape with terraces retained by stonework at Sotome, Nagasaki (長崎市外海の石積集落景観, Nagasaki-shi sotome no ishizumi shūraku keikan)[71] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Nagasaki, Nagasaki 2012 Kodabira settlement 2.JPG
Cultural landscape in Hirado island (平戸島の文化的景観, Hiradoshima no bunkateki keikan)[71] 1.1, 1.5, 1.8 Hirado, Nagasaki 2010 HiradoArchedBridgeA.jpg
Landscape with Tsūjun irrigation channel and rice terraces in Shiraito Plateau (通潤用水と白糸台地の棚田景観, Tsūjun yōsui to Shiraito daichi no tanada keikan)[72] 1.1, 1.5, 2 The discharge of water from the Tsūjun Bridge is one of the 100 Soundscapes of Japan Yamato, Kumamoto 2008/9 A stone arch bridge.
Cultural Landscape of Sakitsu and Imatomi, Amakusa (天草市﨑津・今富の文化的景観, Amakusa-shi sakitsu imatomi no bunkateki keikan)[73] 1.4, 1.7, 1.8 Amakusa, Kumamoto 2011 Sakitsu Smakusa1.JPG
Cultural landscape of Misumi Bay (三角浦の文化的景観, musimuura no bunkateki keikan)[74] 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 2 Uki, Kumamoto 2015 Misumi West Port 08.jpg
Ontayaki Village (小鹿田焼の里, Ontayaki no sato)[75] 2 Hita, Ōita 2008 A plate with a spiral pattern in the middle and a stripe pattern along the rim.
Rural landscape of Tashibunoshō Osaki (田染荘小崎の農村景観, Tashibunoshō Osaki no nōson keikan)[76] 1.1, 1.8, 2 Bungotakada, Ōita 2010
Steam and hot spring landscape in Beppu (別府の湯けむり・温泉地景観, Beppu no yukemuri onsenchi keikan)[77][78] 1.5, 1.6, 2 Beppu, Ōita 2012 Beppu hotspring-well01.jpg
Sakamoto Rice Terraces and Rural Mountain Village Landscape of Sakatani (酒谷の坂元棚田及び農山村景観, sakatani no sakamoto tanada oyobi nōsanson keikan)[79][80] 1.1, 1.3, 2 Nichinan, Miyazaki 2013

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b The Agency for Cultural Affairs (2008-11-01). 国指定文化財 データベース (in Japanese). Database of National Cultural Properties. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  3. ^ "Policy of Cultural Affairs in Japan" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-27.
  4. ^ "文化的景観" [Cultural Landscapes] (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2015.
  5. ^ "重要文化的景観選定地一覧" [Important Cultural Landscapes Sites] (in Japanese). Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. 2015.
  6. ^ a b "Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties - Cultural Landscapes" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. p. 39. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  7. ^ "The Report of the Study on the Protection of Cultural Landscapes Associated with Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2003)" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. pp. 1ff., 33ff. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  8. ^ "UNESCO MAB Reserves - Asia" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  9. ^ "The Report of the Study on the Protection of Cultural Landscapes Associated with Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2003)" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. pp. 21f., 26f., 66ff. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
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  25. ^ "About Kanazawa City". Kanazawa City. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
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  40. ^ "大溝の水辺景観" [Ōmizo Lakeside Landscape] (in Japanese). Takashima. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
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  45. ^ "京都岡崎の文化的景観" [Cultural Landscape of Okazaki in Kyoto] (in Japanese). Kyoto. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
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  47. ^ "日根荘大木の農村景観" [Rural landscape of Hinenosho Ōgi] (PDF) (in Japanese). Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  48. ^ "日根荘大木の農村景観" [Rural landscape of Hinenosho Ōgi] (in Japanese). Izumisano. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  49. ^ "生野鉱山及び鉱山町の文化的景観" [Cultural landscape of Ikuno mine and townscape] (in Japanese). Asago. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Nakagoshi, Nobukazu (2011). "How to Conserve Japanese Cultural Landscapes: The Registration System for Cultural Landscapes". In Sun-kee Hong (ed.). Landcape Ecology in Asian Cultures. Springer. pp. 249–276. ISBN 978-4-431-87798-1.