Test

Euro sign

Loading...
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The euro sign; logotype and handwritten
The euro sign
Euro sign
Punctuation
apostrophe  '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash ‒  –  —  ―
ellipsis  ...  . . .      
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
guillemets ‹ ›  « »
hyphen
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /    
Word dividers
interpunct ·
space     
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
basis point
bullet
caret ^
dagger † ‡ ⹋
degree °
ditto mark ” 〃
equals sign =
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
komejirushi, kome, reference mark
multiplication sign ×
number sign, pound, hash #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
pilcrow
plus, minus + −
plus-minus, minus-plus ± ∓
prime    
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
copyleft 🄯
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
trademark
Currency
currency sign ¤

؋฿¢$֏ƒ£元 圆 圓 ¥

Uncommon typography
asterism
fleuron, hedera
index, fist
interrobang
irony punctuation
lozenge
tie
Related
In other scripts

The euro sign () is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU) and some non-EU countries (Kosovo and Montenegro). The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996. It consists of a stylized letter E (or epsilon), crossed by two lines instead of one. The character is encoded in Unicode at U+20AC EURO SIGN (HTML € · €). In English, the sign precedes the value (for instance, €10, not 10 €, unlike some other European languages). In some style guides, the euro sign is not spaced (€10).

Design[edit]

Official graphic construction of the euro logo
The euro design featured in the Windows font Comic Sans originally had a cartoon eye inside a serif. This was removed to make the symbol fit character-width restrictions because of its use with numerals.[1] It was jokingly commented to be the result of potential legal action by the EU.[2]

The euro currency sign was designed to be similar in structure to the old sign for the European Currency Unit (Encoded as U+20A0 ). There were originally 32 proposals; these were reduced to ten candidates. These ten were put to a public survey. After the survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two, it was up to the European Commission to choose the final design. The other designs that were considered are not available for the public to view, nor is any information regarding the designers available for public query. The European Commission considers the process of designing to have been internal and keeps these records secret. The eventual winner was a design created by a team of four experts whose identities have not been revealed. It is assumed that the Belgian graphic designer Alain Billiet was the winner and thus the designer of the euro sign.[3]

Inspiration for the € symbol itself came from the Greek epsilon (ϵ) – a reference to the cradle of European civilization – and the first letter of the word Europe, crossed by two parallel lines to ‘certify’ the stability of the euro.

The official story of the design history of the euro sign is disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, a former chief graphic designer for the European Economic Community, who claims he had the idea prior to the European Commission.[5]

The European Commission specified a euro logo with exact proportions and colours (PMS Yellow foreground, PMS Reflex Blue background[4]), for use in public-relations material related to the euro introduction. While the Commission intended the logo to be a prescribed glyph shape, type designers made it clear that they intended to design their own variants instead.[6]

Use on computers[edit]

Generating the euro sign using a computer depends on the operating system and national conventions. Some mobile phone companies issued an interim software update for their special SMS character set, replacing the less-frequent Japanese yen sign with the euro sign. Later mobile phones have both currency signs.

The euro is represented in the Unicode character set with the character name EURO SIGN and the code position U+20AC (decimal 8364) as well as in updated versions of the traditional Latin character set encodings.[7][8] In HTML, the € entity can also be used.

The euro sign in a selection of fonts

An implicit character encoding, along with the fact that the code position of the euro sign is different in common encoding schemes, led to many problems displaying the euro sign in computer applications. While displaying the euro sign is no problem as long as only one system is used (provided an up-to-date font with the proper glyph is available), mixed setups often produced errors. One example is a content management system where articles are stored in a database using a different character set than the editor's computer. Another is legacy software which could only handle older encodings such as ISO 8859-1 that contained no euro sign at all. In such situations, character set conversions had to be made, often introducing conversion errors such as a question mark (?) being displayed instead of a euro sign.

Care has been taken to avoid replacing an existing obsolete currency sign with the euro sign. That could create different currency signs for sender and receiver in e-mails or web sites, with confusions about business agreements as a result.

Entry methods[edit]

Depending on keyboard layout and the operating system, the symbol can be entered as:

  • AltGr+4 (UK/IRL)
  • AltGr+5 (US INTL/ESP/SWE)
  • AltGr+E (BEL/ESP/FRA/GER/ITA/POR/CZE/EST/LTU/SWE)
  • AltGr+U (HU/PL)
  • Ctrl+Alt+4 (UK/IRL)
  • Ctrl+Alt+5 (US INTL/ESP)
  • Ctrl+Alt+e in Microsoft Word in United States layout
  • Alt+0128 in Microsoft Windows (depends on system locale setting)[a]
  • Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u followed by 20ac in Chrome OS, and in other operating systems using IBus.
  • Ctrl+k followed by =e in the Vim text editor
  1. ^ Alt+0128 is the correct alt code for the Euro under most system locale settings. Under Cyrillic-based system locale settings (using Windows code page 1251), Alt+0136 must be used. Neither will work under Japanese (932), Korean (949) or Traditional Chinese (950) system locale settings.

On the macOS operating system, a variety of key combinations are used depending on the keyboard layout, for example:

  • ⌥ Option+2 in British layout
  • ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+2 in United States layout
  • ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+5 in Slovenian layout
  • ⌥ Option+$ in French layout[9]
  • ⌥ Option+E in German, Spanish and Italian layout
  • ⇧ Shift+4 in Swedish layout

The Compose key sequence for the euro sign is Compose+= followed by e.

Use[edit]

A euro light sculpture at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt

Placement of the sign also varies. Countries have generated varying conventions or sustained those of their former currencies. For example, in Ireland and the Netherlands, where previous currency signs (£ and ƒ, respectively) were placed before the figure, the euro sign is universally placed in the same position.[10] In many other countries, including France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Latvia[11] and Lithuania, an amount such as €3.50 would be written as 3,50 €.

The European Union did indeed issue a guideline on the use of the euro sign, stating it should be placed in front of the amount without any space in English, but after the amount in most other languages.[12][13][14][15][16]

In English, the euro sign—like the dollar sign ($) and the pound sign (£)—is placed before the figure, unspaced,[17] as used by publications such as the Financial Times and The Economist.[18] When written out, "euro" is placed after the value in lower case; the plural is used for two or more units, and euro cents are indicated with a point, not a comma, e.g., 1.50 euro, 14 euros.

Sums are often expressed as decimals of the euro (for example €0.10). Incl. "ct." (particularly in Germany, Spain, Italy and Lithuania), "snt." (Finland) and Λ (the capital letter lambda for Λεπτό ("Leptó)" in Greece): 10 ct./10Λ/10 cent./10 snt.

Euro sign in the top left corner on a €50 banknote reverse

In Standard English:

  • €0.10/10ct. (amount)
  • €-0.10 (negative)
  • -€0.10 (discount)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Connaire  🇪🇺, Vincent ✍🏽 (26 October 2017). "Monitery symbols are used with numerals; all are on a figure width, the same as the zero. EU's euro would not work on a figure width.https://twitter.com/valio_ch/status/923477297763684352 …". External link in |title= (help)
  2. ^ Connare, Vincent. "Keynote: From the Dark Side… Speak to Me". Ampersand Conference 2011. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  3. ^ "Belg Alain Billiet ontwierp het euroteken" [The Belgian Alain Billet designed the euro sign]. Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). 10 October 2001. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  4. ^ a b "European Commission – Economic and Financial Affairs – How to use the euro name and symbol". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  5. ^ Connolly, Kate (23 December 2001). "Observer | Inventor who coined euro sign fights for recognition". London: Observer.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  6. ^ Typographers discuss the euro, from December 1996.
  7. ^ For details please see the Western Latin character sets (computing)
  8. ^ For Eastern European character set Latin 10 with the euro sign, please see ISO/IEC 8859-16
  9. ^ Mac OS: How to type the Euro glyph, Apple Technical Report TA26547 (11 September 2003).
  10. ^ Euro: valutateken voor of achter het bedrag?, Nederlandse Taalunie. Retrieved 21 December 2006.
  11. ^ "Pareizrakstības nodarbības #8. Eiro simbola pareiza rakstīšana. Otrā daļa - - Mr. Serge". mrserge.lv. 29 April 2014.
  12. ^ OP/B.3/CRI, Publications Office -. "Publications Office — Interinstitutional style guide — 7.3.3. Rules for expressing monetary units". publications.europa.eu.
  13. ^ http://publications.europa.eu/code/de/de-370303.htm#position
  14. ^ http://publications.europa.eu/code/es/es-370303.htm#position
  15. ^ http://publications.europa.eu/code/fr/fr-370303.htm#position
  16. ^ http://publications.europa.eu/code/it/it-370303.htm#position
  17. ^ Article on linguistics: Currency units, TranslationDirectory.com. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  18. ^ Economist.com Research Tools: Style Guide, TranslationDirectory.com. Retrieved 16 April 2012.

External links[edit]