Foreign relations of Luxembourg
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime. Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the United Nations and the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.
Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in nearby Strasbourg.
Relations by country
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Armenia||11 June 1992||
Armenia and Luxembourg established diplomatic ties on 11 June 1992. Armenia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels, (Belgium), and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg. Luxembourg maintains a consulate in Yerevan.
Australia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium). Luxembourg is represented in Australia through the embassy of the Netherlands in Canberra and through an honorary consulate in East Lindfield.
|Belize||15 May 2008||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 15, 2008.
|China||See China–Luxembourg relations|
|Estonia||27 August 1991||
Luxembourg recognised Estonia on February 22, 1923 and re-recognised Estonia on August 27, 1991.[clarification needed] Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on August 29, 1991. Estonia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium) and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg. Luxembourg is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic).
In 1937, a prominent Estonian political leader Artur Sirk, while a fugitive in Luxembourg was found dead, having apparently committed suicide by jumping out a second-story window. Although the Luxembourg Gendarmerie report assumed suicide, because of inconsistencies in the report, the Estonian chargé d'affaires in Paris, Rudolph Mollerson was sent to investigate. Estonian historians including Pusta and Tomingas have argued that the death was an act of defenestration by agents of the first President of Estonia, Konstantin Päts.
As of December 31, 2007, foreign investments made in Estonia originating from Luxembourg totaled 225 million EUR accounting for 2% of the total volume of foreign direct investments. There are about 300 Estonians living in Luxembourg. An Estonian cultural association was founded in 1998. The Estonian President Arnold Rüütel's state visit to Luxembourg was in May 2003, prime minister Andrus Ansip's in 2006. The Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker visited Estonia in 1999 and 2007.
|Finland||25 October 1921||
|France||See France–Luxembourg relations
|India||See India–Luxembourg relations|
In November 1947, Luxembourg voted in favor of the partition plan to create a Jewish state. Israel and Luxembourg established full diplomatic relations in 1949. Due to Luxembourg's small size, the Israeli embassy is located in Brussels and Luxembourg is represented politically by the Dutch embassy and economically by the Belgian embassy.
|Kosovo||21 February 2008||
Luxembourg recognized the independence of Kosovo on 21 February 2008. Luxembourg has promised to give Kosovo €30 million over the next five years. Luxembourg said that the money was mainly for focus on professional training for Pristina and Mitrovica North authorities.
|Lithuania||23 March 1992||
|Palestine||See Luxembourg–Palestine relations|
|Romania||10 December 1910||
Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 10, 1910. Since August 19, 1991, Romania has an embassy in Luxembourg City. Luxembourg is represented in Romania through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and two honorary consulates (in Bucharest and Sibiu).
|Russia||See Luxembourg–Russia relations
Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the United Nations.
In the history of bilateral relations, the first Russian president to come on an official visit to Luxembourg was Vladimir Putin on 24 May 2007. As bilateral trade had more than tripled from USD 66.6 million in 2003 to USD 228.3 million in 2006, time had come to strengthen the ties between the two countries, energy and finance being the key areas of cooperation between Russia and Luxembourg.
Bilateral relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg gained momentum with the opening of a Turkish Embassy in Luxembourg in 1987.
There are 500 ethnic Turk's living in Luxembourg, 200 of whom have dual citizenship. The trade volume between the two States had reached $217 million in 2011.
The United States, fighting on the Allied side, contributed to Luxembourg's liberation in World War I and World War II. More than 5,000 American soldiers, including U.S. Army General George S. Patton, are buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial near the capital of Luxembourg City, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. The strong U.S.-Luxembourg relationship is expressed both bilaterally and through common membership in NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
|Vietnam||See Luxembourg–Vietnam relations
Both countries signed diplomatic relations in 1973. Luxembourg's representation in Vietnam is through its embassy in Beijing, China. Vietnam is represented through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
Relations by organization
- List of diplomatic missions in Luxembourg
- List of diplomatic missions of Luxembourg
- List of ambassadors to Luxembourg
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Luxembourg)
- "Gouvernement du Canada - Government of Canada". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Luxembourg embassy in Washington (also accredited to Canada) Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
- "Czech embassy in Luxembourg City (in Czech and French only)". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Jan Kuthan. "Levné dárky pro muže i pro ženy nejen k narozeninám". Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Luxembourg". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Estonia and Luxembourg". Archived from the original on 2012-04-08.
- Kasekamp, Andres (2000-06-03). The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. ISBN 9780312225988. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- K. Pusta, Saddiku Paevik, Gesilingen, 1964, vol. 1
- W. Tomingas, Vaikiv Ajustu Eestis, New York, 1961
- "Luksemburgi Eesti Selts".
- "Visite d'Etat au Luxembourg de S.E.M. Arnold Rüütel, Président de la République d'Estonie". Archived from the original on 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
- "Convention pour favoriser les échanges et les règlements commerciaux entre l'Union économique belgo-luxembourgeoise et l'Estonie" (PDF).
- "AGREEMENT ON ROAD TRANSPORT BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA, THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA, THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA, THE KINGDOM OF". Archived from the original on 10 December 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Text of the Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments.[permanent dead link]
- "Convention de double imposition : Luxembourg-Estonie".
- "Estonia, Luxembourg sign tax treaty". 2006-06-15. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25.
- "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Countries and regions: Luxembourg". Archived from the original on 2015-02-19. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Luxembourg". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy of France in Luxembourg Ville, Luxembourg". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- "Luxembourg - Embassies and Consulates". EmbassyPages.com. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- "Embassy of Luxembourg in New Delhi".
- "Department of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Italian embassy in Luxembourg City (in French and Italian only)
- "ambasciatalussemburgo.it". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Le Luxembourg reconnaît formellement le Kosovo" (in French). Le Gouvernement du Grande-Duché de Luxembourg. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Dizaino Kryptis. "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija - Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Embassy of Luxembourg in the United States
- Embassy of Mexico in Belgium
- "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Marele Ducat al Luxemburgului". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Countries and Regions > Europe > List of the Countries". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
- "Relations between Turkey and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-02-20. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Luxembourg's FM voices support for Turkey's EU membership". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Luxembourg FM says EU needs Turkey to become global actor". TodaysZaman. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Посольство України в Королівстві Бельгія та Великому Герцогстві Люксембург (за сумісництвом)". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Embassy Information" Archived 2018-09-10 at the Wayback Machine, EmabssyInformation.com, retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "List of Vietnamese Embassies and Consulates abroad" Archived 2007-06-16 at Archive.today, 48th International Mathematical Olympiad, retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Fally, V. (1992). Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg et la construction européenne. Luxembourg City.
- Fally, V. (1996). Le Luxembourg face à la construction européenne. Luxembourg City.
- Frentz, Jean-Marie (2010). "The Foreign Policy of Luxembourg". In Steinmetz, Robert; Wivel, Anders. Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-7782-6.
- Hey, Jeanne A. K. (2002). "Luxembourg's Foreign Policy: Does Small Size Help or Hinder?". Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research. 15 (3): 211–225. doi:10.1080/1351161022000027621.
- Hey, Jeanne A. K., ed. (2003). Small States in World Politics: Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-920-4.
- Hoffmann, Serge (2002). "Les relations germano-luxembourgeoises durant les années 30" [Germano-Luxembourgish relations in the 1930s] (PDF). Ons Stad (in French) (71). Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Huberty, Martine (May 2013). "Ein kleiner Fisch im großen Teich Luxemburger Verhandlungsstragien im Kontext der EU-Institutionen" [A small fish in a big pond: Luxembourgish negotiation strategies in the context of EU institutions] (PDF). Forum (in German) (329): 21–23.
- Kayser, Steve (June 2006). "La neutralité du Luxembourg de 1918 à 1945" [Luxembourg's neutrality from 1918 to 1945] (PDF). Forum (in French) (257): 36–39. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- Wurth, Hubert (2006). "La politique étrangère du Luxembourg" [Luxembourg’s Foreign Policy]. Revue Internationale et Stratégique (in French). 61 (61): 217–226. doi:10.3917/ris.061.0217.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg
- Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relations with Luxembourg
- "Luxembourg and Europe, from the ECSC to the Treaty of Lisbon". Presidency of the Council of the European Union / Luxembourg 2015.