George J. Mitchell
George J. Mitchell
|United States Special Envoy for Middle East Peace|
January 22, 2009 – May 13, 2011
|Preceded by||Tony Zinni (2003)|
|Succeeded by||David Hale|
|Vice Chair of the 9/11 Commission|
November 27, 2002 – December 11, 2002
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Lee H. Hamilton|
|Chancellor of the Queen's University, Belfast|
May 5, 1999 – March 29, 2009
|Preceded by||David Orr|
|Succeeded by||Kamalesh Sharma|
|United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland|
January 3, 1995 – January 20, 2001
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Richard N. Haass|
|Senate Majority Leader|
January 3, 1989 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Robert Byrd|
|Succeeded by||Bob Dole|
|Deputy President pro tempore of the United States Senate|
January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1989
|President||John C. Stennis|
|Preceded by||Hubert Humphrey (1978)|
|United States Senator|
May 17, 1980 – January 3, 1995
|Preceded by||Edmund Muskie|
|Succeeded by||Olympia Snowe|
|Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine|
October 5, 1979 – May 16, 1980
|Appointed by||Jimmy Carter|
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||Conrad K. Cyr|
|United States Attorney for the District of Maine|
|Preceded by||Peter Mills|
|Succeeded by||James Brannigan|
George John Mitchell Jr.
August 20, 1933
Waterville, Maine, U.S.
(m. 1961; div. 1987)
Heather MacLachlan (m. 1994)
|Education||Bowdoin College (BA)|
Georgetown University (LLB)
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1954–1956|
George John Mitchell Jr. (born August 20, 1933) is an American lawyer, businessman, author, and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, Mitchell served as a United States Senator from Maine from 1980 to 1995 and as Senate Majority Leader from 1989 to 1995. He briefly served as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine from 1979 to 1980.
Since retiring from the Senate, Mitchell has taken up a variety of positions in politics and business. He has taken a leading role in negotiations for peace in Northern Ireland and the Middle East, being appointed United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland (1995–2001) by President Clinton and as United States Special Envoy for Middle East Peace (2009–2011) by President Barack Obama. He was a primary architect of the 1996 Mitchell Principles and the 1998 Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland, and was the main investigator in two "Mitchell Reports", one on the Arab–Israeli conflict (2001) and one on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball (2007).
Mitchell served as chairman of The Walt Disney Company from March 2004 until January 2007, and later as chairman of the international law firm DLA Piper. He was the Chancellor of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, from 1999 to 2009. Mitchell also has served as a co-chair of the Housing Commission at the Bipartisan Policy Center.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Political career
- 3 After the Senate
- 4 Northern Ireland peace process
- 5 Chairman of Disney
- 6 Baseball's steroids investigation
- 7 Special Envoy for Middle East Peace
- 8 San Bruno pipeline explosion
- 9 Personal life
- 10 Awards and honors
- 11 Books
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Mitchell was born in Waterville, Maine. His father, George John Mitchell Sr. (born Joseph Kilroy), was of ethnic Irish descent but was adopted by a Lebanese family when he was orphaned. Mitchell's father was a janitor at Colby College in Waterville, where Mitchell was raised. Mitchell's mother, Mary (née Saad), was a textile worker who emigrated to the United States in 1920 from Bkassine, Lebanon, at the age of eighteen. Because of his origin, Mitchell is recognized as a prominent Lebanese-American.
Mitchell was raised a Maronite Catholic and in his childhood served as an altar boy at St. Joseph's Maronite Church in Maine. Throughout junior high school and high school, Mitchell worked as a janitor. In a family of five children, all three of Mitchell's brothers were athletes and though a talented student, as a child, he found himself overshadowed by his brothers' athletic achievements.
Education and military service
After graduating from high school at the age of sixteen, Mitchell attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, where he worked several jobs and played on the basketball team. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1954, intending to attend graduate school and then teach, but instead served in the United States Army from 1954 to 1956, rising to First Lieutenant. In 1961, Mitchell received his Bachelor of Laws from Georgetown University Law Center by attending its part-time program at night. He has since received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Bates College.
Early legal career
After having performed well academically at Georgetown, Mitchell served as a trial attorney for the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice in Washington from 1960 to 1962, and then as executive assistant to Senator Edmund S. Muskie from 1962 to 1965, where he first gained interest in the political world. Afterwards, Mitchell practiced law in Portland, Maine, from 1965 to 1977 and was assistant county attorney for Cumberland County, Maine, in 1971.
From judge to senator
In 1974 Mitchell won the Democratic nomination for governor of Maine, defeating Joseph E. Brennan. He lost in the general election to independent candidate James B. Longley, but was appointed United States Attorney for Maine by President Jimmy Carter in 1977. Mitchell served in that capacity from 1977 to 1979.
Mitchell was nominated by President Carter on July 31, 1979, to the United States District Court for the District of Maine, to a new seat authorized by 92 Stat. 1629. He was confirmed by the Senate on October 4, 1979, and received his commission on October 5, 1979. His service terminated on May 16, 1980, due to his resignation.
After serving out the remainder of Muskie's term, Mitchell was elected to his first full term in 1982 with approximately 61% of the vote against Congressman David Emery, and rose quickly in the Senate Democratic leadership. He was elected as the chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee in 1984, helping the Democrats regain control of the Senate in 1986 with a net eight new seats and a 55–45 majority in the Senate. He served as Deputy President pro tempore in the 100th United States Congress, because of the illness of President pro tempore John C. Stennis, and remains the only senator other than Hubert Humphrey to have held that post.
The position of Deputy President pro tempore was created specifically to be held by a current Senator who is a former President or former Vice President of the United States. Humphrey is a former Vice President of the United States and Mitchell is the only person to have been Deputy President pro tempore who has never held one or both of the two highest offices of the US government.
In 1988 Mitchell was reelected with 81% of the vote, the largest margin of victory in a Senate election that year and the largest majority ever for a senator from Maine.
Senate Majority Leader
Mitchell served as Senate Majority Leader from 1989 to 1995. While in this role, Mitchell led the movement to reauthorize the Clean Air Act in 1990 and pass the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Additionally, under his leadership, the Senate approved the North American Free Trade Agreement and the formation of the World Trade Organization.
In 1994, he turned down an offer of appointment by President Bill Clinton to the United States Supreme Court, to replace the retiring Harry A. Blackmun so that he could continue helping with efforts in the Senate to pass significant health-care legislation. The seat ultimately went to Stephen Breyer. Nevertheless, Congress was not able to pass any significant health-care legislation at the time and Mitchell did not run for reelection in 1994.
For 1994, Mitchell's last year in the Senate, the American Conservative Union gave him a rating of 0.00 on a scale of 0 to 100, with 100 being most conservative. For the same year, the Americans for Democratic Action gave him a score of 90 on a scale of 0 to 100, with 100 being most liberal.
After the Senate
In the business world, Mitchell has served as a director of the Walt Disney Company; Federal Express Corporation; Xerox Corporation; Unilever; Staples, Inc.; Starwood Hotels and Resorts; and the Boston Red Sox baseball team. After leaving the Senate, Mitchell joined the Washington, D.C., law firm Verner, Liipfert, Bernhard, McPherson and Hand; he later became the firm's chairman. He was criticized for lobbying on behalf of the firm's Big Tobacco clients. He is also senior counsel to Preti, Flaherty, Beliveau, Pachios, Orlick & Haley in Portland, Maine. He is Partner and Chairman of the Global Board of DLA Piper, US LLP, a global law firm. Mitchell also served as an Advisor of ZeniMax Media Inc.
In 2007, Mitchell joined fellow former Senate Majority Leaders Howard Baker, Bob Dole, and Tom Daschle to found the Bipartisan Policy Center, a non-profit think tank that works to develop policies suitable for bipartisan support.
Mitchell was reportedly among those considered by Al Gore as a running mate for his 2000 presidential run, but Gore selected Joe Lieberman. Had Mitchell been nominated and the Democratic ticket won that year, he would have been the first Arab American to serve as the Vice President of the United States and just the second Vice President from Maine after Hannibal Hamlin. He also was mentioned in both 2000 and in 2004 as a potential Secretary of State for a Democratic administration, due to his role as Senate Leader and the Good Friday agreements.
Since 2002, Mitchell has been a Senior Fellow and Senior Research Scholar at Columbia University's Center for International Conflict Resolution, where he works to help end or avert conflicts between nations. He was the Chancellor of the Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, until his resignation in April 2009, and namesake of the George J. Mitchell Scholarship, which sponsors graduate study for twelve Americans each year in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
He is the founder of the Mitchell Institute, in Portland, Maine, whose mission is to increase the likelihood that young people from every community in Maine will aspire to, pursue and achieve a college education. In 2007, he became a visiting Professor in Leeds Metropolitan University's School of Applied Global Ethics, and the University is developing a new Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution bearing his name.
Mitchell Report (Arab-Israeli conflict)
Mitchell led an American fact-finding commission initiated under President Bill Clinton in 2000 intended to find solutions for solving the situation between Israel and the Palestinians. Mitchell's report, published in 2001, stressed the need for Israel to halt the expansion of its settlements in the Palestinian territories and for the Palestinians to prevent violence. Interest in the report was renewed when Mitchell was named Special Envoy for Middle East Peace in 2009.
Mitchell served as co-chairman (with Newt Gingrich) of the Congressionally mandated Task Force on the United Nations, which released its findings and recommendations on June 15, 2005, after having been formed that January.
World Justice Project
George J. Mitchell serves as an Honorary Co-Chair for the World Justice Project. The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.
Northern Ireland peace process
Since 1995, Mitchell has been active in the Northern Ireland peace process, having served as the United States Special Envoy for Northern Ireland under President Bill Clinton. He first led a commission that established the principles on non-violence to which all parties in Northern Ireland had to adhere, and then chaired the all-party peace negotiations, which led to the Belfast Peace Agreement signed on Good Friday 1998 (known since as the "Good Friday Agreement"). Mitchell's personal intervention with the parties was crucial to the success of the talks. He was succeeded as special envoy by Richard Haass.
For his involvement in the Northern Ireland peace negotiations, Mitchell was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (on March 17, 1999) and the Liberty Medal (on July 4, 1998). In accepting the Liberty Medal, he stated: "I believe there's no such thing as a conflict that can’t be ended. They’re created and sustained by human beings. They can be ended by human beings. No matter how ancient the conflict, no matter how hateful, no matter how hurtful, peace can prevail."
Chairman of Disney
On March 4, 2004, Disney's board of directors, on which Mitchell had served since 1995, named him Michael Eisner's replacement as Chairman of the Board after 43% of the company's shares were voted against Eisner's reelection (35% was the minimum for disposal). Mitchell himself received a 24% negative vote, a fact that led dissident Disney shareholders Roy E. Disney and Stanley Gold to criticize the appointment of Mitchell, whom they saw as Eisner's puppet.
Having already served on the boards of such companies as Xerox, Starwood, FedEx, and Staples, Mitchell assumed his new role at a particularly tumultuous time in the company's history, needing to face such issues as Comcast's hostile takeover attempts and a possible split with Pixar. Mitchell played an important role in the selection of Robert A. Iger as Eisner's successor as CEO in 2005. On June 28, 2006, Disney announced that its board had elected one of its members, John Pepper Jr., former CEO of Procter & Gamble, to replace Mitchell as chairman effective January 1, 2007.
Baseball's steroids investigation
In 2006, Mitchell was tapped by MLB Commissioner Bud Selig to lead an investigation into the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Major League Baseball players. The investigation derived largely from charges against Barry Bonds, and revelations in the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative (BALCO) trials of Victor Conte and Greg Anderson. Selig has said that revelations brought forth in the 2005 book Game of Shadows were, by way of calling attention to the issue, in part responsible for the league's decision to commission an independent investigation. To this day Mitchell is known to have held meetings with only two active players, Jason Giambi, who was ordered to meet Mitchell by Commissioner Selig in light of his public admissions on the issue, and one additional player whose name was initially not made public but was later revealed to be Frank Thomas. Mitchell did however hold extensive meetings with several known steroid dealers, club attendants, personal trainers, and others who had ties to all players named in the report. Even though the union that protects the players had pressured all but Giambi and Thomas into maintaining the culture of silence that had helped the drug problem remain a secret, there was plenty of other evidence against those named in his report.
Mitchell released a 409-page report of his findings on December 13, 2007. The report includes the names of 89 former and current players for whom it claims evidence of use of steroids or other prohibited substances exists. This list includes names of Most Valuable Players and All-Stars, such as Roger Clemens, Andy Pettitte, Miguel Tejada, Denny Neagle, Paul Lo Duca, David Justice, Barry Bonds, Éric Gagné, Todd Hundley, Randy Velarde, and Benito Santiago.
Mitchell was criticized for having a conflict of interest with the report as he was a director of the Boston Red Sox, especially because no prime Red Sox players were named in the report, despite the fact that Red Sox stars David Ortiz and Manny Ramirez were later accused of using performance-enhancing substances during the 2003 season, as reported by The New York Times on July 30, 2009. Likewise, the report was commissioned by Selig, and no members of the Milwaukee Brewers, whom Selig once owned, appeared in the report. The Los Angeles Times reported that Mitchell acknowledged that his "tight relationship with Major League Baseball left him open to criticism". Mitchell responded to the concerns by stating that readers who examined the report closely "will not find any evidence of bias, of special treatment of the Red Sox".
Special Envoy for Middle East Peace
On January 22, 2009, President Barack Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton appointed Mitchell as the administration's Special Envoy to the Arab-Israeli peace process, formally known as the "Special Envoy for Middle East Peace". The appointment was seen as an indication of the new Obama administration's increased focus on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The choice of Mitchell allowed Obama to demonstrate the seriousness and sincerity of his intentions regarding the peace process, without forcing him to immediately embark on a specific initiative before conditions were yet ripe. An analyst at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars said Mitchell's appointment "says to the world, 'I care about this issue; be patient with me.'" Abraham Foxman, the National Director of the Anti-Defamation League, has stated that, "Sen. Mitchell is fair. He's been meticulously even-handed".
Within the first week of his appointment, Mitchell was dispatched to visit Israel, the West Bank, Egypt, Jordan, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia for peace discussions in light of the 2008-09 Gaza War between Israel and the Gaza Strip, in which both sides had recently entered into unilateral ceasefires. Mitchell began his meetings in Cairo on January 27, and Obama said his visit was part of the president's campaign promise to listen to both sides of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and negotiate a peace deal. However, in a continuation of a George W. Bush administration policy, Mitchell did not plan to talk to Hamas, a group Israel and the United States consider a terrorist organization, but instead focus on talks with the Palestinian National Authority. Mitchell first met with new Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in February 2009 and has met with many notable figures of the Middle East since. In 2010, he led the US delegation to the Palestine Investment Conference.
On May 13, 2011, George Mitchell tendered his resignation from the post of Special Envoy to the Middle East. Obama praised Mitchell, stating, "His deep commitment to resolving conflict and advancing democracy has contributed immeasurably to the goal of two states [Israel and Palestine] living side by side in peace and security."
San Bruno pipeline explosion
This section needs to be updated.February 2018)(
Mitchell was married for 26 years until he and his wife, Sally, divorced in 1987. They had a daughter, Andrea. In 1994, he became engaged to Heather MacLachlan, 35, a sports management consultant, whom he subsequently married in December 1994 and with whom he has a son, Andrew, and daughter called Claire in honour of Claire Bowes (née Gallagher) who had so inspired him when she was blinded in the Omagh bombing. In 2012, he visited Northern Ireland with his son the same age as Claire was when she was blinded and Claire was told that he had named his daughter after her because he always remembered her.
Awards and honors
In recognition for his role in the Northern Ireland peace process, Mitchell was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Liberty Medal and was also nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998. In addition, in 1999 Mitchell was invested as an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE), the only American to ever be given the honor.
- World on Fire: Saving an Endangered Earth (January 1991) ISBN 978-0684192314
- Not For America Alone: The Triumph of Democracy and The Fall of Communism (May 1997) ISBN 978-1568360836
- Making Peace (April 1999 – 1st Edition, July 2000 – Updated) ISBN 978-0434007554 ISBN 978-1501153914
- The Negotiator: A Memoir (May 2015) ISBN 978-1451691399
- (with Alon Sachar a co-author) A Path to Peace: A Brief History of Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations and a Way Forward in the Middle East Hardcover (November 2016) ISBN 978-1501153914
- Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates
- List of Arab and Middle-Eastern Americans in the United States Congress
- Barrett, Ted; Karl, Jonathan (December 11, 2002). "Mitchell quits 9/11 probe". CNN.com. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
- Bipartisan Policy Center's Housing Commission Archived October 31, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Altman, Alex (January 22, 2009). "Middle East Envoy George Mitchell". Time Magazine. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
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- AFP, Obama's new Mideast envoy begins regional tour in Egypt, Jan 27, 2009.
- Marantz, Steve (1994). "The Maine man". The Sporting News. Archived from the original on 2011-11-15.
- "George Mitchell Interview". Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on January 24, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-06-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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- King, John (July 14, 2000). "Gore considering naming VP immediately after GOP convention". CNN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Senator George J. Mitchell Scholarship Research Institute – The Mitchell Institute". The Mitchell Institute.
- "Senator George Mitchell Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution". Leeds Metropolitan University. 2004. Archived from the original on January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- David Bedein (January 23, 2009). "Obama's New Middle East Envoy". FrontPage Magazine.
- "1998 Recipient George Mitchell - Liberty Medal - National Constitution Center". constitutioncenter.org.
- Holson, Laura M. (March 10, 2004). "Former P. & G. Chief Named Disney Chairman". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- Holson, Laura M. (June 29, 2006). "Market Place; Eisner Vote Forces Disney To Catch Up". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- Curry, Jack (December 15, 2007). "One Player Who Spoke With Mitchell Wonders Why So Few Others Did". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "Year after Mitchell Report, MLB tries to move on". Yahoo.com. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Mitchell report: Baseball slow to react to players' steroid use". ESPN.com. December 14, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- Schmidt, Michael S. (2009-07-30). "Ortiz and Ramirez Said to Be on '03 Doping List". New York Times.
- Johnson, Greg (December 14, 2007). "Mitchell cites unbiased history". The Los Angeles Times.
- Landler, Mark (January 21, 2009). "Seasoned Negotiator to Serve as a Mideast Envoy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- Besser, James D. (January 21, 2009). "Mitchell As Envoy Could Split Center". The Jewish Week. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
- Witte, Griff. "Blast at Gaza Border Kills Israeli Soldier; Palestinian Farmer Killed by Gunfire." The Washington Post, January 28, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2008.
- "George Mitchell, Netanyahu Meet Concerning Peace Efforts". Huffington Post. February 26, 2009.
- "Palestinian Development Investment Forum Yields $655 Million". BusinessWeek. June 5, 2010. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Remarks by Senator George J. Mitchell at Palestine Investment Conference. Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine Consulate General of the United States in Jerusalem, June 3, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "George Mitchell resigns as Middle East envoy". CNN. May 13, 2011.
- Myers, Steven (May 13, 2011). "Amid Impasse in Peace Negotiations, America's Chief Middle East Envoy Resigns". New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2014.
- "Former Sen. George Mitchell tapped to settle PG&E fine for San Bruno explosion". Mercury News.
- "The Maine Man", CBS Archived 2011-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
- "Answers – The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions". Answers.com.
- (June 16, 1999), Introduction by Senator Tom Daschle to a speech by George Mitchell
- Quinn, T.J. (August 10, 2007). "Mitchell diagnosed with cancer. Mitchell is of Lebanese descent, his mother migrated to the United States in 1920". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "National – Jefferson Awards". Jefferson Awards. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
- Hoge, Warren (October 17, 1998). "2 Ulster Peacemakers Win the Nobel Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
- Four Freedoms Award#Freedom Medal
- "Mitchell to Maine Legislature: It's possible to work together". Kennebec Journal. January 28, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Clintion and Mitchell given freedom of Belfast on 20th anniversary of peace deal". The Irish Times. April 10, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
- Gould, Alberta. George Mitchell: In Search of Peace. Farmington, Maine: Heritage Pub., 1996
- McCann, Colum. "Transatlantic". Random House, New York, 2013. Novel.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Mitchell|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George J. Mitchell.|
- Special Envoy for Middle East Peace at the US Department of State
- United States Congress. "George J. Mitchell (id: M000811)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- George John Mitchell at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- George J. Mitchell on Charlie Rose
- George J. Mitchell on IMDb
- "George J. Mitchell collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- "George J. Mitchell collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Works by or about George J. Mitchell in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Profile: George Mitchell at BBC News, 13 May 2011
- Interview with George J. Mitchell by Don Nicoll, May 2, 2002 – summary sheet, transcript and audio link at Bates College Digital Library
- Interview with George Mitchell
|1982||George Mitchell (inc.)1||Democratic||61%||David F. Emery||Republican||39%|
|1988||George Mitchell (inc.)||Democratic||81%||Jasper Wyman||Republican||19%|
|96th||Senate: E. Muskie (to May 7, 1980) • W. Cohen • G. Mitchell (from May 17, 1980)||House: D. Emery • O. Snowe|
|97th||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: D. Emery • O. Snowe|
|98th||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • J. McKernan|
|99th||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • J. McKernan|
|100th||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • J. Brennan|
|101st||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • J. Brennan|
|102nd||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • T. Andrews|
|103rd||Senate: W. Cohen • G. Mitchell||House: O. Snowe • T. Andrews|