Japan–Manchukuo Protocol

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Japan-Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932.
Signature of the Japan-Manchukuo Protocol.

The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol (日満議定書) was signed on 15 September 1932, between Japan and the state of Manchukuo. The Treaty confirmed the recognition by Japan of the Manchukuo state, following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and the establishment of a Manchurian state on 1 March 1932. The treaty also defined a mutual defence agreement, allowing Japanese troops to station in Manchukuo, and thereby effectively occupy the country.[1]

On the Japanese side, the protocol was signed by Nobuyoshi Mutō, and on the Manchu side by Zheng Xiaoxu.

Text (Japanese)[edit]







Text (English)[edit]

Japan recognizes the establishment of a free and independent Manchoukuo in accordance with the free will of its inhabitants. Manchukuo has declared its intention of abiding by all international agreements pledged by the Republic of China. The government of Japan and the government of Manchukuo have established a perpetual friendly and neighborly relationship, mutually guaranteeing each other's sovereignty. For the peace of East Asia:

1. Manchukuo, insofar as no future Japan-Manchukuo treaties to the contrary, respects the rights of Japanese government, government officials, and private citizens within the borders of Manchukuo.

2. Japan and Manchukuo pledge to cooperate in the maintenance of mutual peaceful existence by banding against common outside threats. The Japanese military forces are to be stationed in Manchukuo to this end.

This protocol is to be effective immediately upon signing.

This protocol is written in Japanese and Chinese; should there be any differences between the two documents due to translation issues, the document written in the Japanese language shall be considered the original.

Evidenced by fully authorized representatives of each government with signature and seal.

Signed on 15 September of the 7th Year of Showa, also 15 September of the 1st Year of Datong, at Xinjing.


  1. ^ "The protocol specified a mutual defence arrangement between Japan and Manchukuo and an unconditional stationing of Japanese troops, thereby justifying Japan's occupation of Manchuria and Japan's expanding aggression." in Continent, coast, ocean: dynamics of regionalism in Eastern Asia by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu,Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p.20