LGBT rights in the European Union

Jump to navigation Jump to search

EU Globe No Borders.svg
European Union
StatusNever criminalised in EU law.
Last state criminalisation repealed in 1998.
MilitaryAllowed to serve openly in all states
Discrimination protectionsOutlawed in employment with further protections in some member states' law
Family rights
Recognition of relationshipsSame-sex marriage in 14/28 states
Recognition of same-sex unions in 23/28 states
No recognition of same-sex couples in 5/28 states
RestrictionsSame-sex marriage constitutional ban in 7/28 states.
AdoptionJoint adoption in 14/28 states
Step-child adoption in 18/28 states

LGBT rights in the European Union are protected under the European Union's (EU) treaties and law. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in all EU states and discrimination in employment has been banned since 2000. However EU states have different laws when it comes to any greater protection, same-sex civil union, same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples.

Treaty protections[edit]

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union makes in Articles 10 and 19 provisions for combating discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. These provisions were enacted by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999.[1][2]

Furthermore, Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights asserts that "any discrimination based on any ground such as [...] sexual orientation shall be prohibited." The Charter was agreed in 2000 and became legally binding in 2009.[1][2][3]

Legislative protection[edit]

LGBT rights in the European Union

Following the inclusion of the Treaty of Amsterdam's abovementioned provisions, the directive establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation was enacted in 2000. This framework directive compelled all EU states to adopt, within three years, anti-discrimination legislation in employment. That legislation had to include provisions to protect people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.[2]

In practice, this protects EU citizens from being refused a job, or from being fired, because of their sexual orientation. It also protects them from being harassed by a colleague due to their sexual orientation. It does not cover being refused medical services or treatment, refusal of being given a double room in a hotel, protection from bullying in a school and refusal of social security schemes (e.g. survivors’ pensions and financial assistance to carers). Protection under EU law in these circumstances is however granted on the grounds of race or gender.[4]

Proposed directive[edit]

A proposed European anti-discrimination law would outlaw discrimination in the areas of social protection, social advantages, education and access to supply of goods, on the basis of religious belief, disability, age, and sexual orientation.[5] However the directive has been stalled in the Council, despite strong support from the European Parliament.[6]

Transgender rights[edit]

EU law currently takes a different approach to transgender issues. Despite the European Parliament adopting a resolution on transgender’ rights as early as 1989, transgender identity is not incorporated into any EU funding and was not mentioned in the law establishing the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) as sexual orientation was. However, the case law of the European Court of Justice provides some protection by interpreting discrimination on the basis of 'sex' to also refer to people who have had 'gender reassignment'. Thus all EU sex discrimination law applies to transgender people.[2] In 2002, the 1976 equal treatment directive was revised to include discrimination based on gender identity, to reflect case law on the directive.[7]

Intersex rights[edit]

In February 2019, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the rights of intersex people. The resolution called European Union member states to legislate better policies that protected intersex individuals, especially from unnecessary surgery and discrimination. It stated that the parliament "strongly condemns sex-normalizing treatments and surgery; welcomes laws that prohibit such surgery, as in Malta and Portugal, and encourages other member states to adopt similar legislation as soon as possible." The resolution also urged legal gender recognition based on self-determination. It also confirms that intersex people are “exposed to multiple instances of violence and discrimination in the European Union” and calls on the European Commission and the Members States to propose legislation to address these issues. It also includes the need of adequate counselling and support for intersex people and their families, measures to end the stigma and pathologisation intersex people face and increased funding for intersex-led civil society organisations.[8][9][10]

Other actions[edit]

Between 2001 and 2006, a Community Action Programme to Combat Discrimination involved the expenditure of €100 million to fight discrimination in a number of areas, including sexual orientation.[7]

In 2009 the European Commission has acted to tone down a law in Lithuania that included homophobic language and also aimed to support the gay pride parade in the country and others under threat of banning.[2]

Foreign relations[edit]

In June 2010, the Council of the European Union adopted a non-binding toolkit to promote LGBT people's human rights.[11][12]

In June 2013, the Council upgraded it to binding LGBTI Guidelines instructing EU diplomats around the world to defend the human rights of LGBTI people.[13][14]

Same-sex unions[edit]

Same-sex marriage has been legalised in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom (except for Northern Ireland). Same-sex civil unions have been legalised in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. In Denmark, Sweden, and Finland, civil partnerships were legal between 1989 and 2012, and between 1995 to 2009, and between 2002 and 2017 respectively. In Germany, registered life partnerships were legal between 2001 and 2017. In Ireland civil partnerships were legal between 2011 and 2015. However existing civil unions/registered life partnerships are still recognised in all of these countries.

Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia have constitutionally defined marriage as being between a man and a woman.

European Union law (the Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC) requires those member states that legalised same-sex partnerships to recognise each other's partnerships for the purpose of freedom of movement.[15] The European Parliament has however approved a report calling for mutual recognition.[16][17]

According to European Court of Justice case law based on the Employment Equality Framework Directive, employees in a civil partnership with a same-sex partner must be granted the same benefits as those granted to their colleagues upon their marriage, where marriage is not possible for same-sex couples. The Court established this principle in 2008 in the case of Tadao Maruko v. Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Bühnen with regards to a German registered life partnership. In December 2013, the Court confirmed this in the case of Frédéric Hay v. Crédit agricole mutuel (C-267/12) with regards to a French civil solidarity pact, which is significantly inferior to marriage than a German registered life partnership.[18][19]

Also, according to the European Court of Justice in the case of Coman and Others, by judgement of 5 June 2018, a "spouse" (or partner or any other family member) in the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) includes a (foreign) same-sex spouse; member states are required to confer the right of residence on the (foreign) same-sex spouse of a citizen of the European Union.[20][21]

Conversion therapy[edit]

In March 2018, a majority of representatives in the European parliament passed a resolution in a 435-109 vote condemning conversion therapy and urging European Union member states to ban the practice.[22][23][24] A report released by the European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights after the measure was passed stated that "Currently, only Malta and some regions in Spain have explicitly banned LGBTI conversion therapies."[25]

Member State laws on sexual orientation[edit]

For detail, see: LGBT rights in Europe#Legislation by country or territory

Openly gay people are allowed to serve in the military of every country except Cyprus[26], however this is contrary to European law and is rarely enforced.

In December 2016, Malta became the first country in the EU - as well as in Europe - to ban conversion therapy.[27][28][29]

LGBT rights in: Unregistered cohabitation Civil union Marriage Adoption Anti-discrimination laws Hate crime/speech laws
Austria Austria Yes (Since 2003)[30] Yes (Registered Partnership since 2010)[31] Yes (Since 2019[32])[33][34] Yes (Since 2016)[35] All[36] Yes[36]
Belgium Belgium No Yes (Legal Cohabitation since 2000)[37] Yes (Since 2003)[38] Yes (Since 2006)[39] All[36] Yes
Bulgaria Bulgaria No No Constitutional ban since 1991[40] No All[36] No
Croatia Croatia Yes (Since 2003)[41][42] Yes (Life Partnership since 2014)[42] Constitutional ban since 2013[43] De facto step-child adoption, through partner-guardianship since 2014 All[36] Yes
Cyprus Cyprus No Yes (Civil Cohabitation since 2015) [44] No No All[45] Yes[46]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes (Since 2001)[47] Yes (Registered Partnership since 2006)[48] No (pending) No (Step-child adoption pending)[49] All No
Denmark Denmark Yes (Since 1986)
Registered Partnership from 1989 to 2012; certain partnerships are still recognised Yes (Since 2012)[51] Yes (Since 2010)[52] All[36] Yes
Estonia Estonia No Yes (Cohabitation Agreement since 2016)[53] Recognition of marriage celebrated abroad since 2016[54] Step-child adoption since 2016 All[36] Yes[36]
Finland Finland No Registered Partnership from 1989 to 2012; certain partnerships are still recognised‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Lag om registrerat partnerskap</ref> Yes (Since 2017)[55] Yes (Since 2017) All[36] Yes[36]
France France Yes (Since 1999)[56] Yes (Civil Solidarity Pact since 1999)[56] Yes (Since 2013)[57] Yes (Since 2013) All[36] Yes
Germany Germany No Registered Partnership from 2001 to 2017; certain partnerships are still recognised[58] Yes (Since 2017)[59] Yes (Since 2017)[60][58] Some[vague][36] Yes[61]
Greece Greece No Yes (Cohabitation agreement since 2015)[62] No Same-sex couples in civil partnerships are allowed to become foster parents. LGBT individuals may adopt. [63] All Yes
Hungary Hungary Yes (Since 1996)[64][65] Yes (Registered Partnership since 2009)[66] No[67][68]
Constitutional ban since 2012
No All[36] Yes[36]
Republic of Ireland Ireland Yes (Since 2011)[69] Civil Partnership from 2011 to 2015; certain partnerships are still recognised[69] Yes (since 2015)[70] Yes (Since 2015) All[36] Yes
Italy Italy Yes (since 2016)[71] Yes (Civil Union since 2016)[72] One same-sex marriage was recognised in 2017[73][74] Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation since 2016[75] Some[vague] No
Latvia Latvia No No Constitutional ban since 2006[76] No Some[vague] No
Lithuania Lithuania No No Constitutional ban since 1992[77] No All[36] Yes[36]
Luxembourg Luxembourg No Yes (Registered Partnership since 2004)[78] Yes (Since 2015)[79] Yes (Since 2015) All[80] Yes[81]
Malta Malta Yes (Since 2017)[82] Yes (Civil Union since 2014)[83] Yes (Since 2017)[84] Yes (Since 2014)[83] All[85] Yes[36]
Netherlands Netherlands Yes (Since 1979)[86] Yes (Registered Partnership since 1998)[87] Yes (Since 2001)[88] Yes All[36] Yes
Poland Poland No No Constitutional ban since 1997[89][90][91][92][93][94] No Some[vague] No
Portugal Portugal Yes (Since 2001)[95] Yes Yes (Since 2010)[96] Yes (Since 2016) All[36] Yes
Romania Romania No No No No All[36] Yes
Slovakia Slovakia Yes (Limited rights for "close person" recognized under civil and penal law since 2018)[97][98] No Constitutional ban since 2014[99] No All[36] Yes[100]
Slovenia Slovenia Yes (Since 2006)[101] Yes (Registered Partnership since 2017)[102] No Step-child adoption since 2011 All[36] Yes[36]
Spain Spain Yes (Since 1995)[103][104] Yes (All regions and autonomous cities of Spain since 2018) Yes (Since 2005)[105] Yes All[36] Yes
Sweden Sweden Yes (Since 1988)[106][107][108] Registered Partnership from 1995 to 2009; certain partnerships are still recognised[109] Yes (Since 2009)[110] Yes (Since 2002)[111] All[36] Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom (incl. British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar Gibraltar) Scotland only since 2006[112][113] Yes (Civil Partnership all of UK since 2005; in Gibraltar since 2014)[114][115] Yes (Since 2014 in England & Wales, and Scotland and since 2016 in Gibraltar)[116][117][118][119][120]
No (Northern Ireland Northern Ireland)[121]
Yes (Since 2005 in England and Wales,[122] since 2009 in Scotland,[123] since 2013 in Northern Ireland[124] and since 2014 in Gibraltar[125][126]) All[36][127] Yes

Due to the Cyprus dispute placing Northern Cyprus outside the Republic of Cyprus' control, EU law is suspended in the area governed by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

LGBT rights in: Civil union Marriage Adoption Anti-discrimination laws Hate crime/speech laws
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus No No No All Yes

Public opinion[edit]

Below is the share of respondents per country who agreed with the following statements in the 2015 Special Eurobarometer on discrimination.[128] The last column is the change from the 2006 Eurobarometer where respondents were presented the slightly different statement "Homosexual marriages should be allowed throughout Europe".[129]

Member state "Gay and lesbian people
should have the same rights
as heterosexual people"
"There is nothing wrong
in a sexual relationship between
two persons of the same sex"
"Same sex marriages should be
allowed throughout Europe"
Change from 2006
on last statement
 European Union 71% 67% 61% +17
 Austria 70% 67% 62% +13
 Belgium 81% 82% 77% +15
 Bulgaria 51% 27% 17% +2
 Croatia 48% 39% 37% n/a[130]
 Cyprus 62% 40% 37% +23
 Czech Republic 62% 60% 57% +5
 Denmark 90% 88% 87% +18
 Estonia 45% 40% 31% +10
 Finland 74% 71% 66% +21
 France 81% 83% 71% +23
 Germany 70% 74% 66% +14
 Greece 62% 42% 33% +18
 Hungary 49% 44% 39% +21
 Ireland 87% 82% 80% +39
 Italy 72% 61% 58% +24
 Latvia 42% 23% 19% +7
 Lithuania 44% 30% 24% +7
 Luxembourg 75% 80% 75% +17
 Malta 77% 71% 65% +47
 Netherlands 96% 91% 91% +9
 Poland 37% 37% 28% +11
 Portugal 71% 59% 61% +32
 Romania 36% 24% 21% +10
 Slovakia 36% 33% 24% +5
 Slovenia 54% 55% 54% +23
 Spain 90% 87% 84% +28
 Sweden 95% 93% 90% +19
 United Kingdom 84% 75% 71% +25

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, European Union 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights? Archived 21 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Café Babel 17/05/10
  4. ^ "ILGA-Europe". Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  5. ^ Why ILGA-Europe supports the proposed Anti-Discrimination Directive Archived 5 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, ILGA-Europe
  6. ^ European Parliament renews call for anti-discrimination laws for LGBT people, LGBTQ Nation
  7. ^ a b "ILGA-Europe". Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  8. ^ https://oiieurope.org/eu-intersex-resolution/
  9. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/B-8-2019-0101_EN.html?redirect
  10. ^ https://www.washingtonblade.com/2019/02/26/european-parliament-passes-historic-intersex-rights-resolution/
  11. ^ "MEPs welcome new toolkit to defend LGBT people's human rights". The European Parliament's Intergroup on LGBT Rights. 30 June 2010.
  12. ^ "Toolkit to Promote and Protect the Enjoyment of all Human Rights by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 17 June 2010.
  13. ^ "EU foreign affairs ministers adopt ground-breaking global LGBTI policy". The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights. 24 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Guidelines to promote and protect the enjoyment of all human rights by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 24 June 2013.
  15. ^ DIRECTIVE 2004/38/EC on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely
  16. ^ Report on civil law, commercial law, family law and private international law aspects of the Action Plan Implementing the Stockholm Programme, European Parliament
  17. ^ EU-Wide Recognition of Member States’ Gay Marriage, Civil Partnership a Step Closer, WGLB
  18. ^ "Same-sex civil partners cannot be denied employment benefits reserved to marriage". ILGA-Europe. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.
  19. ^ "PRESS RELEASE No 159/13" (PDF). Court of Justice of the European Union. 12 December 2013.
  20. ^ "Judgment in Case C-673/16 (Press Release)" (PDF). Court of Justice of the European Union. 5 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Same-sex spouses have EU residence rights, top court rules". BBC News. 5 June 2018.
  22. ^ "EU-Parlament stärkt LGBTI-Grundrechte".
  23. ^ "Schwulissimo - Europäisches Parlament verurteilt die "Heilung" von Homosexuellen". schwulissimo.de.
  24. ^ "European Parliament condemns gay 'cure' therapy and tells EU member states to ban it".
  25. ^ http://www.lgbt-ep.eu/press-releases/european-parliament-takes-a-stance-against-lgbti-conversion-therapies-for-the-first-time/
  26. ^ https://ihrp.law.utoronto.ca/utfl_file/count/media/IHRP%20Cyprus%20Report%20FINAL%202014.pdf
  27. ^ Benjamin, Butterworth. "Malta just became the first country in Europe to ban 'gay cure' therapy". Pink News. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016.
  28. ^ Stack, Liam (7 December 2016). "Malta Outlaws 'Conversion Therapy,' a First in Europe". New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  29. ^ Henley, Jon (7 December 2016). "Malta becomes first European country to ban 'gay cure' therapy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016.
  30. ^ "HUDOC Search Page". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  31. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  32. ^ "Der Österreichische Verfassungsgerichtshof - Same-sex marriage". www.vfgh.gv.at. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  33. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in German) Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung (49/A)
  34. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in German)Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung (498/A)
  35. ^ "Österreich hebt Adoptionsverbot für Homo-Paare auf". queer.de. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Rainbow Europe 2017". ILGA-Europe. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  37. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in German) Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  38. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Dutch) Wet tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht en tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek
  39. ^ "LOI - WET". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  40. ^ "National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria - Constitution". National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2014. Matrimony shall be a free union between a man and a woman.
  41. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Croatian) ZAKON O ISTOSPOLNIM ZAJEDNICAMA
  42. ^ a b ‹See Tfd›(in Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  43. ^ "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF) (in Croatian). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ "Cyprus: Penal code amended to protect against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity". PinkNews. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  46. ^ "House votes to criminalise homophobia". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  47. ^ "glbtq >> social sciences >> Prague". Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  48. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  49. ^ "Sněmovní tisk 320 Novela z. o registrovaném partnerství" (in Czech). Parlament České republiky. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  50. ^ "1985-86, 1. samling - L 138 (oversigt): Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om afgift af arv og gave. (Lempelse af arveafgiften for samlevende søskende og samlevende personer af samme køn)" (in Danish). webarkiv.ft.dk. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  51. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning, lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger og retsplejeloven og om ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab
  52. ^ "L 146 Forslag til lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag" (in Danish). Folketinget. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  53. ^ "Riigikogu". Riigikogu. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  54. ^ "Gay couple win right to be married in Estonia". 30 January 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  55. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen
  56. ^ a b ‹See Tfd›(in French) Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  57. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
  58. ^ a b ‹See Tfd›(in German) Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft
  59. ^ "§ 1353 Eheliche Lebensgemeinschaft" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  60. ^ "§ 1741 Zulässigkeit der Annahme" (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  61. ^ Strafgesetzbuch: Volksverhetzung
  62. ^ "Greece legalizes same-sex civil partnerships". 23 December 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  63. ^ "- The Washington Post". Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  64. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) 1996. évi XLII. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Polgári Törvénykönyvéről szóló 1959. évi IV. törvény módosításáról Archived 3 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ "ILGA Euroletter 42". Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  66. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  67. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian) T/5423 Magyarország Alaptörvényének 6. módosítása
  68. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Hungarian)T/5424 Az azonos neműek házasságkötéséhez szükséges jogi feltételek megteremtéséről
  69. ^ a b "Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010". Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  70. ^ "Marriage Act 2015". 15 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  71. ^ "XVII Legislatura - XVII Legislatura - Documenti - Temi dell'Attività parlamentare". www.camera.it. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  72. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Italian) [1]
  73. ^ "Ok della Cassazione al matrimonio delle due donne di Avellino". Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  74. ^ "Data" (PDF). nelfa.org. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  75. ^ "Cassazione, sì alla stepchild adoption in casi particolari". 22 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  76. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  78. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in French) Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  79. ^ "Chambre des Députés du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  80. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in French) Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006
  81. ^ "Legislationline". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  82. ^ "Cohabitation Act, 2017". Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  83. ^ a b "ACT No. IX of 2014". Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  84. ^ "Marriage Act and other laws Amendment Act 2017". Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  85. ^ "AN ACT to amend the Constitution of Malta". Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  86. ^ Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  87. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Aanpassingswet geregistreerd partnerschap - BWBR0009190". wetten.overheid.nl. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  88. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
  89. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm RP. Retrieved 5 May 2015. Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
  90. ^ Judgment of the Supreme Court of 7 July 2004, II KK 176/04, W dotychczasowym orzecznictwie Sądu Najwyższego, wypracowanym i ugruntowanym zarówno w okresie obowiązywania poprzedniego, jak i obecnego Kodeksu postępowania karnego, a także w doktrynie (por. wypowiedzi W. Woltera, A. Zolla, A. Wąska), pojęcie "wspólne pożycie" odnoszone jest wyłącznie do konkubinatu, a w szczególności do związku osób o różnej płci, odpowiadającego od strony faktycznej stosunkowi małżeństwa (którym w myśl art. 18 Konstytucji jest wyłącznie związek osób różnej płci). Tego rodzaju interpretację Sąd Najwyższy, orzekający w niniejszej sprawie, w pełni podziela i nie znajduje podstaw do uznania za przekonywujące tych wypowiedzi pojawiających się w piśmiennictwie, w których podejmowane są próby kwestionowania takiej interpretacji omawianego pojęcia i sprowadzania go wyłącznie do konkubinatu (M. Płachta, K. Łojewski, A.M. Liberkowski). Rozumiejąc bowiem dążenia do rozszerzającej interpretacji pojęcia "wspólne pożycie", użytego w art. 115 § 11 k.k., należy jednak wskazać na całkowity brak w tym względzie dostatecznie precyzyjnych kryteriów.
  91. ^ "Judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of 11 May 2005, K 18/04". Polska Konstytucja określa bowiem małżeństwo jako związek wyłącznie kobiety i mężczyzny. A contrario nie dopuszcza więc związków jednopłciowych. [...] Małżeństwo (jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny) uzyskało w prawie krajowym RP odrębny status konstytucyjny zdeterminowany postanowieniami art. 18 Konstytucji. Zmiana tego statusu byłaby możliwa jedynie przy zachowaniu rygorów trybu zmiany Konstytucji, określonych w art. 235 tego aktu.
  92. ^ "Judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal of 9 November 2010, SK 10/08". W doktrynie prawa konstytucyjnego wskazuje się nadto, że jedyny element normatywny, dający się odkodować z art. 18 Konstytucji, to ustalenie zasady heteroseksualności małżeństwa.
  93. ^ "Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland of 25 October 2016, II GSK 866/15". Ustawa o świadczeniach zdrowotnych finansowanych ze środków publicznych nie wyjaśnia, co prawda, kto jest małżonkiem. Pojęcie to zostało jednak dostatecznie i jasno określone we wspomnianym art. 18 Konstytucji RP, w którym jest mowa o małżeństwie jako o związku kobiety i mężczyzny. W piśmiennictwie podkreśla się, że art. 18 Konstytucji ustala zasadę heteroseksualności małżeństwa, będącą nie tyle zasadą ustroju, co normą prawną, która zakazuje ustawodawcy zwykłemu nadawania charakteru małżeństwa związkom pomiędzy osobami jednej płci (vide: L. Garlicki Komentarz do art. 18 Konstytucji, s. 2-3 [w:] Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Komentarz, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa 2003). Jest wobec tego oczywiste, że małżeństwem w świetle Konstytucji i co za tym idzie - w świetle polskiego prawa, może być i jest wyłącznie związek heteroseksualny, a więc w związku małżeńskim małżonkami nie mogą być osoby tej samej płci.
  94. ^ "Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of Poland of 28 February 2018, II OSK 1112/16". art. 18 Konstytucji RP, który definiuje małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny, a tym samym wynika z niego zasada nakazująca jako małżeństwo traktować w Polsce jedynie związek heteroseksualny.
  95. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Lei n. 7/2001 de 11 de Maio
  96. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio
  97. ^ (in Slovak) Zák. č. 40/1964 Z. z. Občiansky zákonník
  98. ^ (in Slovak) Zák. č. 301/2005 Z. z. Trestný poriadok
  99. ^ Radoslav, Tomek (4 June 2014). "Slovak Lawmakers Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  100. ^ "ILGA-Europe". Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  101. ^ (in Slovene) Zakon o partnerski zvezi
  102. ^ (in Slovene) 2840. Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti
  103. ^ "Irish Human Rights & Equality Commission". Irish Human Rights & Equality Commission. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  104. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Ley 29/1994, de 24 de noviembre, de Arrendamientos Urbanos
  105. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
  106. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Lag (1987:813) om homosexuella sambor
  107. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Lag (1987:813) om homosexuella sambor
  108. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Sambolag (2003:376)
  109. ^ "Lag (2009:260) om upphävande av lagen (1994:1117) om registrerat partnerskap - Lagen.nu". lagen.nu. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  110. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Swedish) Lag (2009:253) om ändring i äktenskapsbalken
  111. ^ "Sweden legalises gay adoption". 6 June 2002. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  112. ^ "Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  113. ^ "Cohabitation". Equality Network. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  114. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2004". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  115. ^ "CIVIL PARTNERSHIP ACT 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  116. ^ "Gibraltar approves same-sex marriage". Washington Blade. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  117. ^ "Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013". HMSO. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  118. ^ "Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014". HMSO. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  119. ^ "Gay marriage law comes into effect in Scotland". BBC News. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  120. ^ "First gay marriages in the UK will take place at the stroke of midnight tonight". The Independent. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  121. ^ "Northern Ireland assembly votes to legalise same-sex marriage - Historic vote will not trigger change in law, however, as Democratic Unionists use parliamentary veto to block motion". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  122. ^ "Adoption and fostering". Stonewall. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  123. ^ "War of words as gay adoption applications soar". The Sunday Post. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  124. ^ "Gay adoption: Northern Ireland ban lifted". BBC News. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  125. ^ "Gibraltar gives green light to gay adoptions". the local es. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  126. ^ "Gibraltar unanimously legalizes marriage equality". San Diego Gay & Lesbian News. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  127. ^ "Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008". www.opsi.gov.uk.
  128. ^ "Special Eurobarometer 437: Discrimination in the EU in 2015" (PDF). European Commission. October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2016.
  129. ^ "Eurobarometer 66: Public opinion in the European Union" (PDF). European Commission. December 2006.
  130. ^ Croatia, which became a EU member state in 2013, was not included in the 2006 Eurobarometer

External links[edit]