List of Spanish inventors and discoverers

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This is a list of Spanish inventors and discoverers

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, father of Neuroscience, Nobel prize Laureate




Pitcairn PCA-2 autogyro, build in the U.S. under Cierva license, 1961.


  • Francisco Díaz de Alcalá (1527-1590), urologist and doctor, wrote the first treatises on diseases of the bladder, kidneys, and urethra; he is generally regarded as the founder of modern urology.[23]
  • Pedro Duque (born 1963), astronaut and veteran of two space missions.[24]



  • Carlos Fernández Casado (1905–1988), civil engineer, designer and builder of bridges and viaducts.[26]
  • Jaime Ferrán (1852–1929), doctor and researcher, discovered several vaccines.[27]


  • Manuel García (1805-1906) singer, music educator, and vocal pedagogue, inventor of the first laryngoscope.[28]
  • Antoni de Gimbernat, (1734–1816), surgeon and anatomist, described in detail the anatomy of the inguinal and femoral regions of the human body and laid the groundwork for modern techniques of inguinal hernia repai. The lacunar ligament is named after him.[29][30]
  • Alejandro Goicoechea Omar (1895-1984), engineer, worked for and co-founded Talgo company, where he developed the Talgo trains famous design.[31]
  • Fernando Gallego Herrera, (1901-1973), civil engineer and aviator, noted for improved bridge design, an improved method for undersea tunnel construction, plans for the use of compressed air for vertical take off of aircraft in the 1930s, and the modernization of the Panama Canal.


  • Francisco Hernández (1514–1587), botanicist, carried out important research about the Mexican flora.[32]
  • Juan de Herrera (1530-1597), architect, mathematician and geometrician, designed the construction plans of El Escorial and the Cathedral of Valladolid among others and created a compass to measure length and width and a machine to cut iron.[33]
  • Bartolomé Hidalgo Agüero (1530-1597), doctor, developed, described and evaluated a revolutionary healing method for stab wounds [34]
  • Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529–1588), physician and psychologist, his Examen de ingenios para las ciencias was the first attempt to show the connexion between psychology and physiology.[35]




  • Gregorio Marañón (1887–1960), doctor and researcher, leading figure in endocrinology.[40]
  • Narcís Monturiol (1818–1885), physicist and inventor, pioneer of underwater navigation and first machine powered submarine.[41][42]
  • José Celestino Bruno Mutis (1732–1808), botanicist, doctor, philosopher and mathematician, carried out relevant research about the American flora, founded one of the first astronomic observatories in America (1762).[43]
  • Aureliano Maestre de San Juan (1828-1890), scientist, histologist, physician and anatomist credited as being one of the first scientists to recognize the disorder known as Kallmann syndrome.[44]


Isaac Peral
  • Severo Ochoa (1905–1993), doctor and biochemist, achieved the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA), Nobel prize Laureate (1959).[45]
  • Federico Olóriz Aguilera, (1855-1912), doctor, created the primary fingerprint classification system used in Portugal and Spain prior to the use of computer filing systems.[46]
  • Mateu Orfila (1787–1853), doctor and chemist, father of modern toxicology, leading figure in forensic toxicology.[47]
  • Joan Oró (1923–2004), biochemist, carried out important research about the origin of life, he worked with NASA on the Viking missions.[48]


  • Julio Palacios Martínez (1891–1970), physicist and mathematician.[49]
  • Isaac Peral (1851–1895), engineer and sailor, designer of the first fully operative military submarine. [50]
  • Juan Tomás Porcell (1528-1580), doctor and anatomist, carried decisive research on the Black Death and wrote influential treaties of epidemiology.[51]



Miguel Servet, the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation




See also[edit]


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