List of titles and honours of the British Monarch

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This list of titles and honours of the British Monarch details the current and former titles of the sovereign of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and its predecessor states.

The present United Kingdom was formed in 1922 when the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which had been formed in 1801 from the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, was partitioned to create the Irish Free State. The Kingdom of Great Britain was itself formed in 1707 from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. England and Scotland had been in a personal union since 1603, while Ireland had been in a personal union with the Kingdom of England since the elevation of the Lordship of Ireland to the status of a kingdom in 1542. Wales was gradually conquered by England in the Middle Ages, beginning with the Norman invasion of Wales and concluding with the conquests of Edward I in 1277-83. Wales was legally incorporated into England between 1535 and 1542 by King Henry VIII.

The medieval monarchs of England also controlled large parts of France, particularly under the Angevin kings. Several of the listed titles are therefore French, many held as fiefs of the French Crown rather than independently. Also represented is the English claim to the France, maintained for over 400 years before being dropped after the French Revolution.

While the English claim to France was not seriously pursued after the Middle Ages, later monarchs did hold foreign titles. When William III became King alongside his wife Mary II, he maintained his Dutch titles. The Georgian kings ruled as Electors and Kings of Hanover, as well as holding the office of Arch-Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire. These titles lapsed when Queen Victoria succeeded to the throne.

While the British Empire only gave the monarch one significant new title, that of Emperor of India, its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations and decolonisation created many new independent states, each with a separate monarchy. The British monarch was initially the sovereign of all these states, but many subsequently declared themselves republics and abolished their monarchies. Of the thirty-two realms Elizabeth II became queen of on her accession in 1952, only sixteen retain her as their monarch. All current and former Commonwealth realms are listed below.

Titles held by the monarch of the United Kingdom[edit]



Non-hereditary titles[edit]

Religious titles[edit]

Title Date Notes
Defender of the Faith 1544 Granted to Henry VIII by the Parliament of England to replace the Roman Catholic title revoked by Pope Leo X.
Supreme Governor of the Church of England 1559 Replacement for the title Supreme Head of the Church of England, introduced by Elizabeth I.

Military titles[edit]

The monarch is always the Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Additionally, Queen Elizabeth II is the Colonel-in-chief (patron) of the following regiments:

Commonwealth Realms[edit]

These Kingdoms are independent of the British Crown, but are held in personal union with the United Kingdom and follow the same rules of succession.

Kingdom Royal standard / national flag Date established
Canada Canadian Royal Standard.svg 1931
Australia Royal Standard of Australia.svg 1942
New Zealand Royal Standard of New Zealand.svg 1974
Jamaica Royal Standard of Jamaica.svg 1962
Barbados Royal Standard of Barbados.svg 1966
The Bahamas Flag of the Bahamas.svg 1973
Grenada Flag of Grenada.png 1974
Papua New Guinea Papua new guinea flag large.png 1975
Solomon Islands Solomon islands flag.png 1978
Tuvalu Flag of Tuvalu.svg 1978
Saint Lucia Flag of Saint Lucia.svg 1979
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg 1979
Belize Flag of Belize.svg 1981
Antigua and Barbuda Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg 1981
Saint Kitts and Nevis Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg 1983

Customary titles[edit]

These titles are used by custom in their respective areas, but are not formally held by the monarch.

Title Image Since Notes
Duke of Lancaster Arms of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Leicester and Lancaster.svg 1413 Used in historic Lancashire to reflect the ownership of the Duchy of Lancaster by the monarch separately from the Crown Estate.
Duke of Normandy (Channel Islands) 1259 Used on the Channel Islands to reflect their status as the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy controlled by the Kings of England between 1066 and 1259. The role of monarch of the islands is separate from that of the United Kingdom, but there is no specific title for their sovereign.

Titles formerly held by British monarchs[edit]

The following titles include those held by the monarchs of the predecessor kingdoms to the United Kingdom, and titles formerly used but now abolished.

Kingdoms, empires and equivalent[edit]

Title Coat of arms Date formed Date abolished Notes
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 1801 1922 Partitioned into the Irish Free State and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
King of Great Britain Arms of Great Britain in Scotland (1714-1801).svg 1707 1801 Merged with Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
King of England Royal Arms of England.svg 927 1707 Merged with Scotland to form Great Britain.
King of Scotland Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg 843 1707 Merged with England to form Great Britain.
King of Ireland Arms of Ireland (historical).svg 1542 1801 Merged with Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
King of France Arms of France (France Moderne).svg 1422 (disputed) 1453 (disputed) Claimed from 1340-60 and 1369-1801 by the Kings of England and their successors. Henry VI disputedly ruled France Henry II of France but was ultimately defeated by Charles VII of France as part of culmination of the Hundred Years' War.
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel Arms of the Dutch Republic.svg 1689 1702 William III had held the office of Stadholder as leader of the Dutch Republic since 1672.
King of Hanover Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg 1814 1837 successor to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Held by the Kings of the United Kingdom from 1814 to 1837. Male-preference Semi-Salic law prevents Queen Victoria from inheriting the Kingdom.
Emperor of India Star-of-India-gold-centre.svg 1876 1948 Created for Queen Victoria and abandoned by George VI.


Principality Coat of Arms Date formed Date abolished Notes
Chester Arms of the Earl of Chester.svg 1398 1399 Used exclusively by Richard II
Orange Arms of William Henry, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau.svg 1650 1702 Title of William III


Title Coat of Arms Date acquired Date lost Notes
Duke of Aquitaine Arms of Aquitaine and Guyenne.svg 1154 jure uxoris

1189 suo jure

1451 Gained by the marriage of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine to King Henry II in 1154 and subsequently inherited by Richard I in his own right. Lost by Henry VI during the closing phases of the Hundred Years' War.
Duke of Normandy

(Continental Normandy)

Arms of William the Conqueror (1066-1087).svg 1066 1259 Duke William II of Normandy conquered England in 1066. Henry III renounced his claim to Normandy (besides the Channel Islands) in the Treaty of Paris.




  • Coat of arms of the Lordship of Ireland.svg Lord of Ireland — used by the Kings of England between 1171 and 1542 to signify their sovereignty over parts of Ireland. Elevated to a Kingdom in 1542.

Religious titles[edit]

Offices of the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

Commonwealth Realms[edit]

These Kingdoms were independent of the British Crown, but were held in personal union with the United Kingdom and followed the same rules of succession. Monarchies listed under 'Queen' only had Elizabeth II as their sovereign, and thus never had a reigning king. Dates indicate the year the monarchy was formed and the year of its dissolution.

Titles held by the heir apparent of the United Kingdom[edit]

The following are the titles usually granted to the heir apparent, though most must be granted by the monarch and are not assumed automatically. Other titles have seen sporadic use, such as Edward III granting his heir Edward, the Black Prince the title Prince of Aquitaine.




Baronies and lordships[edit]


See also[edit]