Manuel María Lombardini
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Manuel María Lombardini
|21st President of Mexico|
8 February 1853 – 20 April 1853
|Preceded by||Juan Bautista Ceballos|
|Succeeded by||Antonio López de Santa Anna|
|Born||23 July 1802|
Mexico City, New Spain
|Died||22 December 1853 (aged 51)|
Mexico City, Mexico
Manuel José María Ignacio Lombardini de la Torre (23 July 1802 – 22 December 1853) was a Mexican general and politician who supported Antonio López de Santa Anna. From 8 February 1853 to 20 April 1853, he served as president of Mexico.
In 1836, he fought in the Texas War, where he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and in 1838 in the Pastry War against France. In 1847, during the United States invasion, he gained fame at the Battle of Buena Vista. Also in 1847, he was given the military command of the state of Querétaro. In 1849, he became commander of the army (jefe de la plana mayor del ejército). In 1853, now a brigadier, he received command of the state of Mexico.
In 1853, he took part in the revolt of Jalisco against General Mariano Arista, who was serving as president. Juan Bautista Ceballos occupied the presidency briefly, and then transferred power to Lombardini as provisional president.
Lombardini served from 8 February 1853 to 20 April 1853, when Santa Anna returned to the presidency from exile in Jamaica. As president, he improved the roads to Veracruz and Acapulco and regulated navigation on Lake Chalco. He also founded the school of engineering at the Academia de San Carlos and introduced certain policy initiatives, such as an order to require convicted criminals in Mexico City to receive instruction in Christian doctrine.
Lombardini wrote a famous letter to the Mexican politician and political theorist Lucas Alamán that outlined the principles that should underpin the political program of conservatives. He approved Alamán's reasoning and prepared an electoral charade to legitimize the return of ex-president Santa Anna. Before handing over power, Lombardini issued a decree by which Santa Anna was appointed "Captain General of sea and land, with absolute powers". Shortly afterwards he was appointed Chief of Staff of the Army and Commanding General. Santa Anna also named him commander of the garrison of Mexico City, where he would die a few months later, in December.
- "Lombardini, Manuel María", Enciclopedia de México, v. 8. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
- García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrúa, 1984.
- Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
- www.bicentenario.gob.mx 
Juan Bautista Ceballos
| President of Mexico
8 February - 20 April 1853
Antonio López de Santa Anna