|Lady Margaret Douglas|
|Born||8 October 1515|
|Died||7 March 1578(aged 62)|
|Title||Countess of Lennox|
|Spouse(s)||Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox|
|Issue||Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley |
Charles Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox
|Parents||Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus|
Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox (8 October 1515 – 7 March 1578), was the daughter of the Scottish queen dowager Margaret Tudor and her second husband Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. In her youth she was high in the favour of her uncle, Henry VIII of England, but twice incurred the King's anger, first for her unauthorised engagement to Lord Thomas Howard, who died in the Tower of London in 1537 because of his misalliance with her, and again in 1540 for an affair with Thomas Howard's nephew Sir Charles Howard, the brother of Henry's wife Catherine Howard. On 6 July 1544, she married Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, one of Scotland's leading noblemen. Her son Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, married Mary, Queen of Scots, and was the father of James VI and I.
Margaret was born at Harbottle Castle in Northumberland. Her mother had crossed the border from Scotland when her father was facing difficulties in Scotland. In October 1528, Angus was threatened by James V of Scotland and sent Margaret back over the River Tweed into England at Norham Castle. After a brief stay at Berwick Castle accompanied by her nurse or 'gentlewoman' Isobel Hoppar, Margaret joined the household of her godfather, Cardinal Wolsey. When Wolsey died in 1530, Lady Margaret was invited to the royal Palace of Beaulieu, where she resided in the household of Princess Mary. Because of her nearness to the English crown, Lady Margaret Douglas was brought up chiefly at the English court in close association with Mary, her first cousin, the future Queen Mary I, who remained her lifelong friend. At Christmastime at Greenwich Palace in 1530, 1531, and 1532, Henry VIII gave Margaret the generous sum of 10 marks (£6-13s–4d).
When Anne Boleyn's court was established, Margaret was appointed as a lady-in-waiting. There she met Anne Boleyn's uncle, Lord Thomas Howard (not to be confused with his brother Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk), and they began their courtship. Thomas was a younger son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, by his second marriage to Agnes Tilney. By the end of 1535 Thomas and Margaret had fallen in love and become secretly engaged.
King Henry turned against Anne Boleyn in May 1536. When in early July 1536 he learned of Margaret's engagement to Thomas Howard (Anne's uncle), he was furious. Henry had declared his daughters Mary and Elizabeth bastards, leaving Margaret very high in the line of succession; for her to contract an unauthorized marriage was politically outrageous, especially with the son of a powerful nobleman and near kin of the disgraced queen. Both Lord Thomas and Lady Margaret were committed to the Tower. On 18 July 1536, Parliament, by an Act of Attainder, condemned Thomas to death for attempting to 'interrupt ympedyte and lett the seid Succession of the Crowne'. The Act also forbade the marriage of any member of the King's family without his permission. Thomas was spared execution, but remained in the Tower even after Margaret broke off their relationship. He died there on 31 October 1537.
Margaret also fell ill in the Tower, and the King allowed her to move to Syon Abbey under the supervision of the abbess. She was released from imprisonment on 29 October 1537. There are credible reports that Margaret was moved to Syon Abbey during her confinement with child born from her union with Lord Thomas Howard, the second son named Thomas of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. The first son named Thomas became the 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Margaret and Lord Thomas Howard had entered into a contract for marriage officiated with witnesses and clergy, and had lived in a state of matrimony for about six months until King Henry VIII discovered and invalidated the marriage by writ of attainder. King Henry VIII then ordered Lord Thomas Cromwell to extract from Margaret a written recantation of her love for and her marriage to Lord Thomas in return for her freedom from imprisonment and restoration to the King's Court. Margaret is said to have visited and provided financial support for the boy born from this marriage, named Sir Robert Howard, who was raised in Brockdish Hall, a manor house purchased in 1437 by John Howard, the 1st Duke of Norfolk, after receiving a commission from King Richard, III. Brockdish Hall was later inherited by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, later named the 2nd Duke of Norfolk after leading King Henry VIII's army to victory over Scottish King James IV at Flodden Field. Thomas Howard the 2nd Duke of Norfolk was the father of Lord Thomas Howard and grandfather of Sir Robert Howard, Queen Anne Boleyn, and Queen Catherine Howard. Sir Robert Howard married Phillipa Buxton with issue of the marriage including Sir John Thomas Howard, Knight of the Garter, who married Elizabeth Lock. According to G.J. Meyer's in his work The Tudors, King Henry VIII had interpreted the marriage between Lord Thomas Howard and Margaret Douglas to be an attempt by Lord Howard to "make himself the King of England." However, the many love letters between Margaret Douglas and Lord Thomas reveal a true love affair wrongfully ended by the paranoia of King Henry VIII.
In 1539, Margaret and the Duchess of Richmond were appointed to greet Henry VIII's bride, Anne of Cleves, at Greenwich Palace, join her household, and convey her to the King. This would have been a great honour, but instead Henry chose to meet Anne at Rochester.
In 1540, Margaret was again in disgrace with the King when she had an affair with Lord Thomas Howard's half-nephew Sir Charles Howard. He was the son of Thomas' elder half-brother Lord Edmund Howard, and a brother of Henry VIII's fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
In 1543, Margaret was one of the few witnesses of King Henry's final marriage to Catherine Parr, Dowager Lady Latimer, at Hampton Court. Margaret became one of Queen Catherine's chief ladies. Catherine Parr and Margaret had known each other since they both had come to court in the 1520s.
Marriage and diplomacy
In 1544, Lady Margaret married a Scottish exile, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox (1516–1571), who later became regent of Scotland in 1570–1571. In total the couple had eight or nine children, though only two - Henry Stuart (1545-1567), born in 1545 at Temple Newsam; and Charles Stuart (1555-1576), who later married Elizabeth Cavendish in 1574 - survived to manhood; one of their other siblings was called Philip, presumably after the Spanish king and husband of Margaret's cousin, Mary I. Elizabeth Cavendish, wife of Charles, Earl of Lennox, was the daughter of Sir William Cavendish and Bess of Hardwick.
In June 1548, during the war of the Rough Wooing, Margaret's father, the Earl of Angus, wrote to her with the news that her half-brother, George Douglas, and others of the family had been captured at Dalkeith Palace. Her father hoped that she and her husband could arrange that they were well treated as prisoners. The Earl of Lennox forwarded the letter to the Duke of Somerset, writing that his father-in-law would have done better to ask others for help. Margaret wrote to her father from Wressle Castle in March 1549, complaining that he had avoided meeting her husband. She asked him to seek an honourable peace through the acknowledgement of her marriage, "what a memorial it should be to you!"
During the reign of Queen Mary I of England, Lady Margaret had rooms in Westminster Palace. In November 1553, the Queen told the ambassador, Simon Renard, that Margaret was best suited to succeed her to the throne. Margaret was the chief mourner at Queen Mary's funeral in December 1558. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth I of England, Margaret moved to Yorkshire, where her home at Temple Newsam became a centre for Roman Catholic intrigue.
Margaret succeeded in marrying her elder son, Lord Darnley, to his first cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots, thus uniting their claims to the English throne. Queen Elizabeth I disapproved of this marriage and had Lady Margaret sent to the Tower of London in 1566, but after the murder of Margaret's son Darnley in 1567, she was released. Margaret denounced her daughter-in-law, but was eventually later reconciled with her. Her husband assumed the government of Scotland as regent, but was assassinated in 1571. In 1574, she again aroused Queen Elizabeth's anger by marrying her younger son Charles to Elizabeth Cavendish, the stepdaughter of the Earl of Shrewsbury. She was again sent to the Tower, unlike the Countess of Shrewsbury, but was pardoned after her son Charles' death in 1576.
Lady Margaret's diplomacy largely contributed to the future succession of her grandson, James VI of Scotland, to the English throne.
Death and legacy
After the death of her younger son, she helped care for his daughter, Lady Arbella. However, she did not outlive him by very long. A few days before her death, she dined with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and this led to rumours that she had been poisoned. There is no historical evidence to substantiate this.
Although she died in debt, she was given a grand funeral in Westminster Abbey, at the expense of Queen Elizabeth I. She was buried in the same grave as her son Charles in the south aisle of Henry VII's chapel in the Abbey. It has been said that her grandson erected the fine monument, but it was commissioned in October 1578 by her executor and former servant Thomas Fowler. Her recumbent effigy, made of alabaster, wears a French cap and ruff with a red fur-lined cloak, over a dress of blue and gold. On either side of the tomb chest are weepers of her four sons and four daughters.
The Lennox Jewel was most likely made for Lady Lennox in the 1570s although the date and occasion of its commission is the subject of some controversy. In 1842, the jewel was bought by her descendant, Queen Victoria. The locket, considered "one of the most important early jewels in the Royal Collection", is on display in the Holyrood Palace.
Margaret Douglas is known for her poetry. Many of her works are written to her lover, Lord Thomas Howard, and are preserved in the Devonshire MS. Her close friends, Mary Shelton and the Duchess of Richmond, were the main contributors, as well as Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and Thomas Wyatt.
|Ancestors of Margaret Douglas|
- State Papers Henry Eighth, vol.4 part 4 (1836), 510, 518 Northumberland to Wolsey, 9 October 1529.
- State Papers Henry Eighth, vol.4 (1836), p.509-510, 539–40, 567: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.4 (1875), no.4709: Cameron, Jamie, James V, (1998) p.36-7 & fn.24
- Marshall, Rosalind K. (2006). Douglas, Lady Margaret, countess of Lennox (1515–1578), noblewoman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Stedall, Robert (14 March 2014). "Lady Margaret Douglas and the Lennox Jewel". MaryQueenofScots.net.
- Nicolas, Nicholas Harris, ed., Privy Purse Expences of Henry VIII, 1529–1532, London (1827), p. 98, 183, 281. It may have been stakes for her to play card games; or for her to give as alms.
- Head, David M. (2008). Howard, Thomas, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), magnate and soldier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Davies, Catherine (2008). Howard [née Tilney], Agnes, duchess of Norfolk (b. in or before 1477, d. 1545), noblewoman. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Richardson 2004, pp. 236–237
- Riordan, Michael (2004). Howard, Lord Thomas (c.1512–1537), courtier. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
- Nichols, John Gough, ed. (1846). The Chronicle of Calais in the Reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. London: Camden Society. p. 170. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. p. 437.
- Linda Porter. Katherine the Queen: The Remarkable Life of Katherine Parr, the Last Wife of Henry VIII, Macmillan, 2010. pg 207-8.
- Kimberly Schutte. A Biography of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, 1515–1578, Edwin Mellen Press, 2002.
- The Tudor Times article about her mentions eight children, with her youngest two called Philip and Charles, who was later Earl of Lennox
- Tudor Place states that the couple had nine children.
- Calendar State Papers Scotland, vol.1 (1898), 127–8, 172–3
- Calendar of State Papers Spanish. 11. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1916.
- Rev. Joseph Stevenson M.A., ed. (1865), "Appendix to Preface", Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, of the Reign of Elizabeth. 1559-1560. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty’s Public Record Office., London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, pp. cxviii, cxix, cxxii
- "MARGARET DOUGLAS, COUNTESS OF LENNOX". Westminster Abbey. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Kent, Francis W.; Zika, Charles, eds. (2005). Rituals, Images, and Words: The Varieties of Cultural Expression In Late Medieval And Early Modern Europe. Brepols. p. 190.
the tomb was inscribed, "This work was completed at the charge of Thomas Fowler, the executor of this lady, 24 Oct 1578"
- "The Art of Monarchy: The Darnley Jewel or Lennox Jewel, c. 1571-8". The Royal Collection. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- Aschengreen Piacenti, Kirsten; Boardman, John (2008). Ancient and Modern Gems and Jewels in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen. London: The Royal Collection.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lennox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 419.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Stewart". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 911.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Margaret Douglas Countess of Lennox.|
- Margaret Douglas: The forgotten Tudor princess, BBC History Magazine, November 18, 2015 at 5:00 pm
- de Lisle, Leanda (2012). Tudor: The Family Story. Chatto & Windus.
- de Lisle, Leanda (August 2013). "King Henry's Niece". History Today. 63 (8).
- de Lisle, Leanda (2013). Tudor: Passion. Manipulation. Murder. The Story of England's Most Notorious Royal Family. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1610393638.
- Denny, Joanna (2005). Katherine Howard: A Tudor Conspiracy. Portrait. p. 8. ISBN 978-0749950736.
- Stevenson, Jane (2001). Early Modern Women Poets (1520–1700): An Anthology. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199242573.
- Weir, Alison (2001). Henry VIII: The King and His Court. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-43659-8.
- Weir, Alison (2015). The Lost Tudor Princess: A life of Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345521392.