|Countries and territories|
The Mashriq (Arabic: مَـشْـرِق, also Mashreq, Mashrek) is the eastern or, less commonly, north-eastern part of the Arab world. This comprises the Arab states of Bahrain, Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Iraq. This excludes non-Arab states of Somalia, Djibouti, and the Comoros. Poetically the "place of sunrise", the name is derived from the verb sharaqa (Arabic: شرق "to shine, illuminate, radiate" and "to rise"), referring to the east, where the sun rises.
As the word Mashriq refers to countries bounded between the Mediterranean Sea and Iran, it is the companion term to Maghreb (Arabic: مَغْرِب), the western part of North Africa. Libya may itself be seen as bifurcated between Mashriq and Maghreb influences, with its eastern part (Cyrenaica) seen as linked more to Egypt and the Mashriq.
These geographical terms date from the early Islamic expansion. This region is similar to the Bilad al-Sham and Mesopotamian regions combined. As of 2014[update], the Mashriq is home to 1.7% of the global population.
All of the countries located in the Arab Mashreq area are members of the Arab League (with the suspension of Syria), GAFTA, ICO[disambiguation needed] and the United Nations. The region cooperates in several projects including the Arab Mashreq International Road Network and the Arab Mashreq International Railway. Several nations are also members in the GCC and others have tried unity before, such as United Arab Republic in the 60's and 70's.
- Fertile Crescent
- Arabian Peninsula
- Nile Valley
- Cradle of civilization
- Greater Syria
- Maghreb, "place of sunset", which contrasts Mashriq, "place of sunrise"
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- "European Neighbourhood Policy in the Mashreq Countries: Enhancing Prospects for Reform". Centre for European Policy Studies. 2005-09-01.
- Introduction to Migration and the Mashreq Archived February 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Migrants from the Maghreb and Mashreq Countries" (PDF). IOM International Organization for Migration. July 2002.
- Alvarez, Lourdes María (2009). Abu Al-Ḥasan Al-Shushtarī. Paulist Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8091-0582-3.
- Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2003-12-12). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 442. ISBN 978-1-135-94873-3.
- Gall, Michel Le; Perkins, Kenneth (2010). The Maghrib in Question: Essays in History and Historiography. University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-292-78838-1.
- Clancy-Smith, Julia (2013-11-05). North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean World. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-135-31213-8.
- Official estimate of the Population of Egypt Archived May 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- UN estimate for Lebanon
- Official Jordanian population clock Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "National Main Statistical Indicators". State of Palestine – Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
- UN estimate for Syria
- "Iraq". The World Bank.
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