Early European voyages
The bay was visited by European voyages of discovery in the second half of 18th century for wood, water and supplies. As late as 1802, Governor King of New South Wales considered Tahiti "the only island that needs little or no precaution for the safety of those who visit it"
The first European known to have visited Tahiti was Lieutenant Samuel Wallis, in Dolphin, who landed on 17 June 1767 in Matavai Bay. The first contacts with the native Tahitians were difficult, since on the 24 and the 26 June 1767, canoes tried to take the ship and beach it. In retaliation, the English sailors opened fire on the canoes and on the crowds on the hills. In reaction to this powerful counter-attack, the inhabitants of the bay laid down offerings for the English, showing their wish for peace or to submit. Following this episode, Samuel Wallis was able to establish cordial relations with the female chieftain Oberea (Purea) and remained on the island until 27 July 1767.
Wallis named the bay Port Royal.
On 2 April 1768 Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, completing the first French circumnavigation in La Boudeuse and Étoile, landed in Matavai Bay. He stayed about ten days on the island, which he called “Nouvelle-Cythère“, or "New Cythera", because of the warm welcome he had received and the sweetness of the Tahitian customs.
A primary objective of James Cook's first voyage, in Endeavour, was to observe the 1769 Transit of Venus from the South Pacific. Tahiti was chosen for the observations based on Wallis's recent discoveries. Endeavour's third lieutenant was John Gore, who had served as master's mate on Dolphin. Cook anchored in the bay on 13 April 1769. A sandy spit on the northeast end of Matavai Bay – named Point Venus by Cook – was chosen for the observatory. The location of the observatory would be known as "Fort Venus." Cook departed on 13 July 1769.
Lady Penrhyn was a convict transport in the First Fleet. Following her arrival in New South Wales, she was under contract to go to the "North West Coast of America to Trade for furrs & after that to proceed to China & barter the Furrs &ca for Teas or other such Goods..." She departed Sydney Cove on 5 May 1788 and sailed north with the intention of purchasing furs in Kamchatka for resale in China.
The poor condition of the ship and sickness among her crew compelled Lady Penrhyn to stop in Matavai Bay in July 1788, where the crew recovered and the ship was repaired. John Watts, who was acting as supercargo, had visited previously as a midshipman in Resolution on James Cook's third voyage. The voyage is documented in the published journals of Watts and surgeon Arthur Bowes Smyth
Bligh's first breadfruit voyage
In 1787, William Bligh took command of Bounty on a mission to convey breadfruit from the South Pacific to the Caribbean. Bligh had served as sailing master of Resolution during Cook's third voyage. Bounty reached Tahiti on 26 October 1788, after ten months at sea. Bligh and his crew spent five months in Tahiti. They established a nursery at Point Venus, collecting and preparing 1015 breadfruit plants to be transported. Bligh allowed the crew to live ashore and care for the potted breadfruit plants, and they became socialized to the customs and culture of the Tahitians. Bounty departed with her breadfruit cargo on 4 April 1789. Part of the crew mutinied on 28 April 1789.
Pandora, under Captain Edward Edwards, was sent from England to search for the Bounty and the mutineers. Pandora reached Tahiti on 23 March 1791 and recovered 14 crew members from Bounty. On 8 May 1791 Pandora left Tahiti and subsequently spent three months in the South-West Pacific in search of the Bounty and the remaining mutineers, without finding any traces of her or them. Pandora was wrecked in Torres Strait on the return voyage.
The Vancouver Expedition, in Discovery and Chatham, visited Matavai Bay in from 29 December 1791 to 24 January 24 1792. George Vancouver had previously visited Matavai Bay on Cook's second and third expeditions.
Bligh's second breadfruit voyage
From 1791 to 1793 Bligh, in Providence, in company with Assistant under Nathaniel Portlock, undertook a second attempt to convey breadfruit to the West Indies. He arrived at Matavai Bay on 9 April 1792 and stayed for three months collecting the breadfruit plants.
London Missionary Society
- First voyage of James Cook
- 1769 Transit of Venus observed from Tahiti
- Tautira Bay, which Cook visited on his second and third voyages
- "Governor King to the Duke of Portland, 1 March 1802", Historical Records of Australia, Series I, Volume 3, Page 432
- Oliver, p 3
- Hawkesworth, Chapter 9
- Salvat et al, p.44-45
- Salmond, Anne (2010). Aphrodite's Island. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780520261143.
- Bougainville, ch VIII
- "The First Voyage (1768-1771)". Captain Cook Society. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- "The Second Voyage (1771-1776)". Captain Cook Society. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- "The Third Voyage (1776-1780)". Captain Cook Society. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- Smyth, Cf. Fidlon and Ryan p. 86
- Phillip, Chapter XX
- Hīroa, p 43
- Hīroa, p 47
- Bougainville, Louis Antoine de (1771). Le voyage autour du monde, par la frégate La Boudeuse, et la flûte L'Étoile (in French).
- Bougainville, Louis Antoine de (1772). A voyage round the world performed by order of His Most Christian Majesty, in the years 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769 by Lewis de Bougainville, colonel of foot, and commodore of the expedition, in the frigate La Boudeuse, and the store-ship L'Etoile. translated from the French by John Reinhold Forster. OL 24343856M.
- Edwards, Edward; Hamilton, George (1915). Voyage of H. M. S. 'Pandora': Despatched to Arrest the Mutineers of the 'Bounty' in the South Seas, 1790- 1791. Francis Edwards. OL 16790685M.
- Hīroa, Te Rangi (Peter. H. Buck) (1953). Explorers of the Pacific: European and American Discoveries in Polynesia. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 43. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum. OCLC 646912113.
- Hawkesworth, John; Byron, John; Wallis, Samuel; Carteret, Philip; Cook, James; Banks, Joseph (1773), An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of His present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, esq, London Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell, Volume I, Volume II-III
- Historical Records of Australia, Series I—Governors Despatches to and from England, Volume III—1801–1802, Library Committee of the Commonwealth Parliament, Commonwealth of Australia, 1915; available at La Trobe Univerisity and at HathiTrust.
- Oliver, Douglas L. (1974). Ancient Tahitian Society. University Press of Hawaii. p. 3. ISBN 0824802675.
- Phillip, Arthur (1789). The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay : with an account of the establishment of the colonies of Port Jackson & Norfolk Island / compiled from authentic papers which have been obtained from the several departments. To which are added, the journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball & Capt. Marshall with an account of their new discoveries. John Stockdale., (transcript)
- Salvat, Bernard; Conte, Eric; Merceron, François; Touchard, Michel-Claude (2006). Tahiti et les îles de la Société: Polynésie. Gallimard Loisirs. ISBN 978-2-7424-1917-3.
- Smyth, Arthur Bowes. A Voyage to Botany Bay & Oteheite, 1787, by A.B.S. Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn. National Library of Australia. MS 4568. (transcript)
- cf. Smyth, Arthur Bowes (1979). Fidlon, G.; Ryan, R.J. (eds.). The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn, 1787-1789. Sydney: Australian Documents Library.