|President of Argentina|
|Assumed office |
10 December 2015
|Vice President||Gabriela Michetti|
|Preceded by||Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|
|President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations|
17 April 2017 – 17 April 2018
|Preceded by||Nicolás Maduro|
|Succeeded by||Evo Morales|
|5th Chief of Government of Buenos Aires|
10 December 2007 – 10 December 2015
María Eugenia Vidal
|Preceded by||Jorge Telerman|
|Succeeded by||Horacio Rodríguez Larreta|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
10 December 2005 – 18 July 2007
|30th Chairman of Boca Juniors|
27 February 2008 – 1 June 2008
|Preceded by||Pedro Pompilio|
|Succeeded by||Jorge Amor Ameal|
3 December 1995 – 4 December 2007
|Preceded by||Antonio Alegre|
|Succeeded by||Pedro Pompilio|
|Born||8 February 1959|
Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina
|Political party||Republican Proposal (2009–present)|
|Commitment to Change (2003–2009)|
|Spouse(s)||Yvonne Bordeu (1981–1991)|
Isabel Menditeguy (1994–2005)
Juliana Awada (2010–present)
Alicia Blanco Villegas
|Residence||Quinta de Olivos|
|Education||Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina|
Mauricio Macri (Spanish pronunciation: [mauˈɾisjo ˈmakɾi]; born February 8, 1959) is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentina's history (the runoff system had been introduced in 1994) and is the first democratically-elected non-Radical or Peronist president since 1916. He was chief of government of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015, and represented the city in the lower house of the Congress of Argentina from 2005 to 2007. The reintegration of Argentina into the international community is central to Macri's agenda.
Born in Tandil, Buenos Aires Province, Macri is the son of Franco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors, and was raised in an upper class home. He received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and studied at Columbia Business School in New York City. Macri became president of Boca Juniors, one of Argentina's two most popular football clubs, in 1995. In 2005, he created the centre-right Republican Proposal party (Propuesta Republicana, also known as PRO).
Although Macri was a potential presidential candidate in the 2011 general elections, he ran instead for reelection as mayor. He received about 47 percent of the vote in the mayoral election, which led to a runoff election on 31 July 2011 against Daniel Filmus in which Macri was reelected for a second consecutive term. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of the presidential elections on 25 October, he received 51.34 percent of the vote to defeat Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the Argentine Congress. In 2016, Macri was named one of the world's 100 most influential people and the most powerful president in Latin America by the U.S. news magazine Time.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Boca Juniors
- 3 Political career
- 4 Buenos Aires administration
- 5 Presidential elections
- 6 Presidency
- 7 Controversies
- 8 Honours
- 9 Ancestry
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Macri was born in Tandil in the province of Buenos Aires, the son of Italian-born tycoon Francesco "Franco" Macri (owner of the Philco affiliate in Argentina) and Alicia Blanco-Villegas Cinque. The family moved to Buenos Aires a short time later, and kept their houses in Tandil as vacation properties. His father, and his uncle Jorge Blanco Villegas, influenced Macri to become a businessman, and Franco expected his son to succeed him as leader of his firms. Macri preferred his uncle's company to constant scrutiny by his father. He was educated at Colegio Cardenal Newman, and received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA). At this time Macri became interested in neoliberalism and joined the now-defunct Union of the Democratic Centre and a think tank led by former minister Álvaro Alsogaray. In 1985, he briefly attended Columbia Business School, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the Universidad del CEMA in Buenos Aires.
Macri's professional experience began at SIDECO Americana, a construction company which was part of his father's Socma Group holding company, where he worked for three years as a junior analyst and became a senior analyst. In 1984, he worked in the credit department of Citibank Argentina in Buenos Aires. Macri joined Socma Group the same year, and became its general manager in 1985. In 1992, he became vice president of Sevel Argentina (then manufacturing Fiat and Peugeot automobiles under licence in Argentina as part of Socma), and became president two years later.
In 1991, Macri was kidnapped for 12 days by officers of the Argentine Federal Police. Kept in a small room with a chemical toilet and a hole in the roof to receive food, he was freed when his family reportedly paid a multimillion-dollar ransom. Macri has said that the ordeal led him to enter politics.
His first wife was Ivonne Bordeu, daughter of race-car driver Juan Manuel Bordeu. They had three sons: Agustina, Jimena and Francisco. After they divorced, Macri married model Isabel Menditeguy in 1994; Franco requested a prenuptial agreement. Although the marriage reached a crisis when Macri became chairman of Boca Juniors, they did not divorce until 2005. He began a romance with María Laura Groba which did not lead to marriage. Macri left Groba in 2010, began a relationship with businesswoman Juliana Awada and married Awada that year. At the wedding reception, he wore a fake moustache as part of his impersonation of singer Freddie Mercury. Macri accidentally swallowed the moustache, and Minister of Health Jorge Lemus performed first aid to save his life.
Macri intended to run for chairman of Boca Juniors in 1991, but his father convinced him to keep working at Sevel. He tried to buy the Deportivo Español team, but could not get support from the team's board of directors. Macri supported Boca Juniors, paying coach César Luis Menotti's salary and buying players for the team (including forward Walter Perazzo). Franco, skeptical about his son's prospects for success, finally allowed him to run Boca Juniors. He instructed aide Orlando Salvestrini to work with Mauricio for two reasons: to help him and to monitor his activities. Mauricio met with former Boca Juniors chairmen Antonio Alegre and Carlos Heller, and tried to convince them to work with him; both rebuffed him. Macri later sought the support of other groups in Boca Juniors, eventually winning the team's internal elections in 1995 with 7058 votes.
His first years were unsuccessful; the team's performance was poor, players frequently complained about salaries and bonuses, and Macri changed coaches three times. The only initial improvement was a partial reconstruction of the stadium. He arranged that the Boca Juniors institution worked in the stock exchange, to earn enough money to buy new players. Macri's first coach was Carlos Salvador Bilardo, who brought 14 new players to the team and finished the 1996 Apertura league in 10th place. His second coach, Héctor Veira, also performed poorly. New coach Carlos Bianchi helped Juan Román Riquelme improve his performance, and had Martín Palermo and Guillermo Barros Schelotto as effective forwards. They won the first two tournaments, beginning a record 40-match unbeaten run.
Macri made his political debut in 2003, founding the centre-right party Commitment to Change (Spanish: Compromiso para el Cambio). The party was intended to be a source of new politicians, since the major parties were discredited after the December 2001 riots in Argentina. Later that year, Macri ran for mayor of Buenos Aires, alongside Horacio Rodríguez Larreta. Although he won the first round of the election with 37 percent of the vote, he lost the runoff election with 46 percent of the vote to the sitting mayor Aníbal Ibarra, who was re-elected. In 2005 Macri joined Ricardo López Murphy of Recrear in a political coalition, the Republican Proposal (PRO), and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies with 33.9 percent of the vote. His campaigns were managed by Jaime Durán Barba. According to a 2007 report, Macri had participated in only 44 of 321 votings; he countered that he had become disappointed with Congress, since bills sent by the president were not open to debate or amendment. Ibarra was impeached and removed from office in 2006 as a result of the República Cromañón nightclub fire, and his term was completed by vice-chief of government Jorge Telerman.
During 2006, Macri worked both on his political activities as deputy and with his presidency of Boca Juniors. Before the 2007 national elections, he negotiated with the likely presidential candidate Jorge Sobisch, the governor of Neuquén Province, to create a national right-wing political coalition. This conflicted with Macri's alliance with Ricardo López Murphy, who also intended to run for president and had denounced Sobisch for corruption. Later that year, Sobisch's image was severely tarnished when teacher Carlos Fuentealba was killed during a union demonstration in Neuquén. Macri immediately backed out of his pact with Sobisch and remained neutral during the national election, which was won by Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the Front for Victory (FPV).
In February 2007 Macri announced that he would run again for mayor of Buenos Aires, heading the PRO slate with Gabriela Michetti. In the 2 June 2007 first round, he received 45.6 percent of the vote and defeated government-backed Daniel Filmus (who received 23.8 percent of the vote); incumbent Jorge Telerman finished third. In the 24 June 2007 runoff election, Macri defeated Filmus with 60.96 percent of the vote.
For the 2009 midterm elections, he allied with Francisco de Narváez and Felipe Solá. The alliance was successful; De Narvaez defeated the former president Néstor Kirchner in Buenos Aires Province and Gabriela Michetti won the city election. With this defeat, the Kirchners lost the majority of both chambers of the Congress that they had. Cristina Kirchner, whose public image was good after the death and state funeral of Néstor Kirchner in late 2010, ran for reelection. Macri, who was considered a likely candidate for the opposition, ran for reelection as mayor instead. He won the first round on 10 July 2011 with 47.08 percent of the vote against Filmus' 27.78 percent, and then the 31 July runoff against Filmus with 64.25 percent of the vote.
Buenos Aires administration
Macri's administration worked on public transport in an attempt to reduce auto traffic in Buenos Aires. One project was the Metrobus, a bus rapid transit system added to the city's main streets. By the end of Macri's term as mayor, the 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) system had five lines and 113 stations.
Other streets have bikeways to promote cycling, and the city created its EcoBici bicycle-sharing scheme. By the end of Macri's administration, about 155 km (96 mi) of bicycle lanes were constructed and 49 of the planned 200 automated bicycle-sharing stations were built.
Several level crossings on the city's commuter-rail network were replaced by tunnels to improve road and rail traffic flow. Under Macri, the city committed to two large rail-infrastructure projects: running viaducts through the center of the city to extend the Belgrano Sur Line, and raising the San Martín Line to eliminate level crossings. Macri proposed the Red de Expresos Regionales project to link the city's main railway terminals and lines with a series of tunnels; but as of 2018, in the term of Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, the project is still in the planning stages.
The Buenos Aires Underground, initially maintained by the national government, was the subject of a year-long dispute between Macri and Kirchner. The national government sought to transfer it to the city, which Macri supported, but the budget and length of the transition period were contested. Macri announced that the city would take over the underground on 13 November 2012. Line A, still using wooden cars almost a century old, received a fleet of modern cars from the national government; Line H also received new cars. Madrid Metro rolling-stock purchases for Line B were criticised, despite their technical superiority, for having a limited compatibility with the line and costing more than new trains for the city's commuter-rail network.
The main police force in the city at the time was the national police, the Argentine Federal Police. Buenos Aires, initially a federal district with limited autonomy, became an autonomous city with the 1994 amendment of the Constitution of Argentina. The Federal Police, under national-government jurisdiction, still worked in the city and disputes over a potential transfer to a local force were unresolved when Macri was elected. He unsuccessfully tried to negotiate a transfer with President Cristina Kirchner. As an alternative, in 2008 Macri proposed a bill for the creation of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police to work with federal police in the city. The bill, supported by the Republican Proposal (PRO) party and the Kirchnerite blocs, was rejected by Civic Coalition blocs and those aligned with Aníbal Ibarra. Elisa Carrió, leader of the Civic Coalition, thought that Macri had abandoned the transfer request, and Ibarra said that the forces' duties would overlap. The Metropolitan Police began with nearly 1,000 officers; the Federal Police had 17,000 officers working in the city. As a result, the metropolitan police worked on a small scale during the transition and more complex tasks were reserved for the federal police.
Jorge Alberto Palacios was the first chief of the Metropolitan Police. Part of the police unit which rescued Macri from his kidnappers, Palacios was fired by Néstor Kirchner for his alleged involvement in the murder of Axel Blumberg (for which he was acquitted). His appointment was controversial; Palacios had been investigated for concealing evidence of the 1994 AMIA bombing, and he resigned a short time later. The transfer of police protection to the city was completed during the administration of Macri's successor, Horacio Rodríguez Larreta.
A gay couple, José María Di Bello and Alex Freyre, wanted to get married in Buenos Aires, which was not legal by then, and so they started a judicial case. According to Di Bello and Freyre, articles 172 and 188 of the civil code, which restrict marriage to people of different genders, was unconstitutional. Judge Gabriela Seijas agreed, and they married in 2009. It was the first same-sex marriage in Argentina. Macri did not appeal the ruling, saying that same-sex marriage was becoming universally accepted and individuals had a right to happiness. He compared the controversy with the sanctioning of divorce during the 1980s after the restoration of democracy in Argentina; highly controversial at first, it was eventually accepted. A federal law permitting same-sex marriage was passed the following year.
Macri's refusal to appeal the sentence affected his relationship with Archbishop Jorge Bergoglio (who later became Pope Francis). Bergoglio opposed same-sex marriage, and expected Macri to appeal the ruling. According to the archbishop, it was not up to a lower-court judge to rule on the constitutionality of a law and Macri should have appealed the ruling in a higher court. Bergoglio was also annoyed by what he considered a lack of communication between him and Macri.
Macri ran for president of Argentina in 2015. With President Cristina Kirchner unable to run, early opinion polls indicated a close three-way race between Macri, Kirchnerite governor Daniel Scioli and Tigre mayor Sergio Massa. Other minor parties, such as the Radical Civic Union (UCR), the Civic Coalition (CC) and some socialist parties, made a political coalition, the Broad Front UNEN. This coalition disbanded before the elections, and the UCR and CC made instead a coalition with the PRO, named Cambiemos (Spanish: Let's change). Macri supported Horacio Rodríguez Larreta against Gabriela Michetti in the PRO primary elections for mayor of Buenos Aires. Larreta won the primary and general elections, and Michetti was selected as the vice-presidential candidate. María Eugenia Vidal, deputy mayor of Macri, was running for governor of Buenos Aires Province in the Cambiemos ticket. The populous province was a strategic district for the election. Macri and Massa negotiated a coalition against Kirchnerism, with Massa stepping down from the run to the presidency and running for governor of Buenos Aires instead, in the same ticket of Macri. Macri declined this proposal, kept María Eugenia Vidal as governor candidate, and Massa ran for president with his own party.
Macri, Carrió and Ernesto Sanz ran in the primary elections, which Macri won. Preelection polls indicated that Scioli would win by a wide margin, possibly avoiding a ballotage. The final results showed Scioli finishing first with 37.08 percent, just ahead of Macri's 34.15 percent, leading to a ballotage round on 22 November. Massa finished third with 21 percent of the vote, and the other two candidates contended for his voters. Scioli and Macri were polarized about the presidency of Cristina Kirchner; Scioli wanted to keep most Kirchnerite policies, and Macri wanted to change them. In the legislative elections, the Front for Victory (FPV) lost its majority in the Chamber of Deputies but kept it in the Senate.
Scioli did not participate in the first presidential debate before the elections, and it was held with the other five candidates. When the ballotage was confirmed, Macri agreed to a presidential debate with Scioli. Two debates were planned: one by the Argentina Debate NGO and another by TV news channel Todo Noticias. Macri preferred a single debate, and opted for the one organized by Argentina Debate.
He criticized Scioli for negative campaigning by the Front for Victory. Several politicians and FPV institutions issued warnings about what might happen if Macri were elected president. According to Scioli, the campaign was intended to encourage public awareness. It was rumored that the campaign might have been suggested by Brazilian João Santana, who organized a similar campaign in Brazil during the ballotage of Dilma Rousseff and Aécio Neves in the 2014 Brazilian general election.
The ballotage was held on 22 November. Scioli conceded with 70 percent of the votes counted and provisional results of 53 and 47 percent. The gap between the candidates slowly narrowed over the next few hours, giving Macri a smaller margin of victory than most exit polls suggested. His election ended a dozen years of Kirchnerism in Argentina.
|Presidential styles of|
|Reference style||Excelentísimo Señor Presidente de la Nación (Most Excellent President of the Nation)|
|Spoken style||Presidente de la Nación (President of the Nation)|
|Alternative style||Señor Presidente (Mister President)|
Macri announced his cabinet on 25 November 2015, about two weeks before he was due to take office. The presidential transition was difficult. Macri and Kirchner met briefly; she provided no help to the new administration, and spoke only about the inauguration ceremony. They disagreed about its location; Kirchner wanted it to take place at the Palace of the Argentine National Congress, and Macri favoured the White Hall of the Casa Rosada. Plans for violence against Macri supporters near the Plaza during the inauguration were rumoured, and it was unclear who would control the police during the ceremony. Judge María Servini de Cubría ruled that Kirchner's term of office ended at midnight on 10 December, and provisional Senate president Federico Pinedo was in charge of the executive branch for the 12 hours between the end of Kirchner's term and Macri's swearing-in. Kirchner left Buenos Aires to attend the inauguration of sister-in-law Alicia Kirchner as governor of Santa Cruz Province that day.
Macri took office on 10 December. He took the oath of office at the National Congress of Argentina after Vice President Gabriela Michetti. Macri delivered a 27-minute speech pledging "support for an independent judiciary, to fight corruption and drug trafficking, the internal union of Argentina, universal social protection, a 21st-century style of education and for everyone to have a roof, water and sewer" and greeted his electoral rivals.
He later went to the Casa Rosada and received the presidential sash in the White Hall from Senate President Federico Pinedo, accompanied by Vice President Gabriela Michetti, Chamber of Deputies President Emilio Monzó and Supreme Court President Ricardo Lorenzetti. Minutes later Macri went to the balcony where thousands of people waited in the Plaza de Mayo, and said: "Argentines deserve to live better, and we are about to start a wonderful period for our country. I promise to always tell the truth and show where our problems are". He called on "all Argentines to follow his administration and alert them when [the government] makes mistakes". After his swearing-in, Macri hosted a reception at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' San Martín Palace for heads of state Michelle Bachelet (Chile), Horacio Cartes (Paraguay), Juan Manuel Santos (Colombia), Rafael Correa (Ecuador), Evo Morales (Bolivia), Dilma Rousseff (Brazil) and King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and representatives of other countries who attended his inauguration.
Macri began his presidency with economic difficulties carried over from previous governments. The Central Bank of Argentina's reserves were depleted; inflation was over 30 percent, although the widely discredited National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina (INDEC) provided a lower figure. The country had the highest tax rates in history, but the government budget balance had an eight-percent deficit. There had been a sovereign default since 2001, and a conflict existed with hedge funds; tight currency controls had been in place since 2011. Since Argentina is a developing country, a global drop in commodity prices reduced trade revenue.
One of Macri's first economic policies was the removal of currency controls, allowing Argentines to freely buy and sell foreign currencies. Argentina has had a floating exchange rate since then, with intervention from its central bank, and the Argentine peso was devalued by 30 percent. Another early policy was the removal of export quotas and tariffs on corn and wheat. Tariffs on soybeans, the most lucrative Argentine export, were reduced from 35 to 30 percent.
Macri wanted to negotiate with the holdouts and end the default to return to the international capital markets and strengthen the national economy. Argentina offered to pay $6.5 billion to settle lawsuits on 5 February 2016, requesting that the prior ruling on its payments be lifted. The deal would still need to be ratified by the Argentine Congress. Although Cambiemos did not have a majority in either house of Congress, the bill was approved in March and Argentina faced a court hearing in New York on 13 April. The court upheld judge Thomas P. Griesa's ruling, allowing Argentina to pay the 2005 and 2010 bondholders to whom it was still in default. The payment, made with a bond sale, was reportedly the end of the Argentine default, which began in 2001.
On 19 January 2016, Macri attended the World Economic Forum in Davos with opposition figure Sergio Massa and part of his cabinet in a search for investors. He was one of the best-known figures at the meeting, along with Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau and US vice president Joe Biden. It was the first time Argentina had participated in the forum since 2003, and the last president to attend was Eduardo Duhalde.
During Macri's first year, the economy at large did not recover at the pace expected. Unemployment and inflation remained high and growth did not come as expected. Kirchner's Careful Pricing price-control program, which benefited small and medium-sized enterprises, was kept with a revision of its included products. The government began several public-works projects to stimulate the economy and help the construction sector. Political intervention in the INDEC figures ended, and the International Monetary Fund declared in November 2016 that Argentine statistics were again in accordance with international standards. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimated that Argentina would emerge from recession in 2017 or 2018, and lowered its country risk classification from seven points to six.
The economy took a turn for the worse in 2018. The government estimated a lower inflation, but it stayed high. The international trade, which ended with superavit the previous year, gave a deficit. A drought reduced the production of soy, the main export of Argentina; the drought was among the worst natural disasters in the world in 2018. The Federal Reserve of the United States increased the interest rates, which raised the price of the United States dollar worldwide. Those factors led to a dramatic increase of the price of the dollar in Argentina. The Central Bank increased the interest rate to 60%, but could not keep the price low.
Macri announced on May 8 that Argentina would seek a loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The initial loan was $50,000bn. Federico Sturzenegger, the presidents of the Central Bank of Argentina, resigns a week later. Macri replaces him with Luis Caputo, and merges the ministries of treasury and finances into a single one, led by Nicolás Dujovne. The US-Turkey conflict caused a new increase on the price of dollar. The tariffs on soy exports were restored, as a result of the crisis. Caputo resigns, and Guido Sandleris is appointed as president of the Central Bank. The IMF expands the loan with an extra 7,000 millions. In exchange, the Central Bank would operate on the price of dollar only when it surpassed certain requirements. The budget for 2019 reduced some expenditures and increased some taxes, in order to avoid deficit completely.
Prices for public utilities such as electricity, gas and water were fixed in 2002 by Eduardo Duhalde during the 1998–2002 Argentine great depression. The Kirchners kept them fixed, and the state subsidized them to compensate for inflation, which rose by nearly 700% during their government. Investment in the sectors decreased, and their generation and distribution networks suffered. Argentina lost its self-sufficiency in energy, and had to import it instead of exporting its surplus. The cost of energy imports increased the trade deficit and the inflation rate, and power outages became frequent. The Kirchners left the grid on the brink of collapse. The Kirchners’ lavish subsidies were also a big factor in the huge fiscal deficit that harmed the national economy.
Minister Juan José Aranguren arranged the removal of state subsidies for electricity, gas and water, which caused a huge increase in prices for those utilities. The increases were met with protests in a number of cities by people with banners, bugles and noise-making cacerolazos. Several courts annulled the price increase, since it had been enacted without a public hearing, as required by law. The Supreme Court upheld a temporary halt of the price increase for residential customers in September 2016, which was greeted with relief.
Seeking to increase energy production, Macri signed an investment deal for the Vaca Muerta shale deposit in Patagonia. Roughly the size of Belgium, Vaca Muerta has the second-largest reserve of shale gas in the world. To finalise the deal, the unions negotiated flexibility in labour costs (the main drawback to industrial development in the area). The Neuquén Province government pledged to improve roads and general infrastructure.
Human rights organizations had aligned themselves with the Kirchners during the government of both Néstor and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, even in topics unrelated to human rights, and often worked as their spokesmen. They kept this role since 2015, when Macri defeated Cristina Kirchner in the presidential elections. This, however, undermined their legitimacy in Argentine society. Macri maintained a distant relation with those organizations, and did not seek their support, but did not openly confront them either. They kept their funding and the institutions under their control, and the trials to the military of the Dirty War were continued. However, the organizations kept their opposition to Macri. The cabinet was divided on the approach to take towards them. A group supported a direct confrontation against the organizations and the removal of their state financing, and another to take an active role in their activities, replacing them with less politically motivated figures. The general policy, however, was to ignore the disputes and focus the activities of the government towards more pressing matters, such as the economy.
The government modified the public holiday for the Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice, which makes reference to the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, to allow it to be celebrated on a movable date. This ruling was met with huge criticism. The ruling was reverted some days later, and the holiday was kept at the fixed date of March 24.
This section needs to be updated.December 2018)(
Macri is pro-life. In a 2014 La Nación interview, he said: "I am in favor of life; I don't think we need to open that debate". However, he said that he would abide by any law sanctioned by Congress regardless of his personal views.
On 16 December Macri met with members of the Qom community and 30 other groups of indigenous peoples. The meeting was held at the Casa Rosada Bicentennial Museum, and the delegation was headed by Qom community leader Félix Díaz. Macri said that the recognition of indigenous communities and support for indigenous peoples are policies of his government.
During Macri's presidency, Argentina's foreign relations have shifted substantially from those under Kirchner. He immediately proposed action against Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela for human-rights abuses and tried to remove the country from Mercosur. This shift is part of a change in the Latin American pink tide. The other countries in the bloc also opposed Maduro's socialist government, and prevented Venezuela from taking the pro tempore presidency of Mercosur. The bloc seeks a trade and cooperation agreement with the European Union and closer ties with the Pacific Alliance. Macri agreed with Brazilian president Michel Temer to guarantee free trade between their countries. Macri and Temer increased their interest in better trade relations with Mexico, the second-largest economy in Latin America, when the country became involved a diplomatic conflict with US president Donald Trump.
Macri also shifted Argentina's relations with the United States. Barack Obama praised him during a 2016 two-day visit: "I'm impressed because he has moved rapidly on so many of the reforms that he promised, to create more sustainable and inclusive economic growth, to reconnect Argentina with the global economy and the world community". Obama announced that the US would declassify its military and intelligence records of the 1970s Proceso de Reorganización Nacional. Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra supported Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election, which was won by Republican Donald Trump. Macri forged diplomatic relations with Trump, tightening control of immigration, limiting the entry of convicted criminals and facilitating the deportation of foreigners who commit crimes. Those limits have been compared with Trump's border policies.
Macri maintains the Argentine claim in the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute. However, he took a less-confrontational stance towards the United Kingdom and allowed more flights between Argentina and the islands. Although relations between Argentina and the UK have improved, the United Kingdom maintains its claim to the islands and refuses to discuss the sovereignty of the islands, claiming Argentina is ignoring the wishes of the islanders to remain British.
Macri changed Argentina's position on conflicts in the Middle East. During Macri's first week in office he voided the memorandum of understanding between Argentina and Iran which would have established a joint investigation of the 1994 AMIA bombing, a terrorist attack on a Jewish organization for which Argentina has blamed Hezbollah and Iran. The memorandum had been ruled unconstitutional by the judiciary, a ruling which was appealed during Kirchner's presidency. Macri withdrew the appeal, upholding the original ruling. He distanced himself from Iran and encouraged continued investigations of the AMIA bombing and the death of Alberto Nisman, a prosecutor investigating the case. Those cases and Nisman's probe of Kirchner have special importance for Argentina–Israel relations, and ambassador Carlos Faustino García and Israeli diplomat Modi Efraim praised Macri for encouraging the investigations. In July 2016, it was announced that Argentina would grant asylum to 3,000 refugees of the Syrian Civil War.
The 2017 Argentine legislative election renewed a third of the seats in the Senate and half of the chamber of deputies. The election was considered a referendum on the presidency of Macri up to that point. Kirchner, leader of the opposition, ran for Senator for the populous Buenos Aires province. She left the PJ to avoid the primary elections and created a new party, Citizen's Unity. Esteban Bullrich, minister of education, was the candidate of Cambiemos in the district. Kirchner and Bullrich had a close tie in the primary election, and Kirchner prevailed by just 0,21% of the vote.
The electoral campaign, however, was largely ignored, as the media was focused on the ongoing controversy over the dissapearance of Santiago Maldonado. Kirchner used the case for political campaign, stating that Maldonado was victim of a forced disappearance, similar to those of the Dirty War. Maldonado was found dead a few days before the general elections, and the circumstances and autopsy refuted Kirchner's theory. Cambiemos won in thirteen of the twenty-three provinces of Argentina, and in the five biggest populated districts. Kirchner ended in a distant second place, as a result of the higher turnout for the general elections.
Sergio Burstein was the leader of a group of people whose relatives died in the AMIA bombing. Macri was charged in a 2010 wiretapping case, suspected of spying on Burstein and his brother-in-law Néstor Daniel Leonardo. Macri denied the charges. Judge Norberto Oyarbide indicted him, and Federal Chamber members Eduardo Farah, Eduardo Freiler and Jorge Ballestero confirmed the indictment. It was suspected at the time that Macri had organized a clandestine spy network with the aid of Jorge Alberto Palacios and Ciro James. The case was transferred to judge Sebastián Casanello, who ordered further investigation. It was learned that Macri had little knowledge about Palacios' daily activities and his minister, Mariano Narodowski, appointed James. Franco Macri admitted hiring private agencies to spy on Daniel Leonardo.
Although Casanello dismissed the charges in 2015, Leonardo appealed the ruling; the dismissal was upheld several months later in federal court. Farah, Freiler and Ballestero voted for acquittal; others involved in the case, including Palacios, are still under investigation.
In 2016 the Panama Papers, 11.5 million documents with details about offshore entities owned by people from many countries, were leaked. Macri was listed as a director of Fleg Trading from 1998 to 2009. He did not declare his involvement in 2007 (when he became mayor) or in 2015, when he became president. Prosecutor Federico Delgado asked the judiciary to determine if Macri "maliciously failed to complete his tax declaration". Macri argued that he did not report his involvement because he was not a stakeholder and did not receive money from it. The company was established by his father to run a failed Brazilian business. Macri owns other foreign accounts with properly-disclosed transactions, and said that he would file a judicial "declaration of certainty" to affirm his statements. A similar company, Kagemusha, was discovered several months later. It was established in 1981 by Franco Macri, with his 22-year-old son its vice president.
On 20 September 2017, the civil judge Andrés Fraga determined that in the company Fleg Trading Ltd, of the Bahamas, Mauricio Macri only accepted the position of director for which he was appointed to the sole and only effect of designating a replacement and resigning, and that in Kagemusha he did not even accept tacitly the position of director for which he was appointed by Franco Macri. The ruling adds that neither of the two companies he was a shareholder, that he did not receive any dividends or profits, did not participate in the business decisions or in any business, nor was he the owner or co-owner of any current bank account of the companies.
Detention of Milagro Sala
Gerardo Morales of the UCR was elected governor of Jujuy Province in the 2015 elections. Although the UCR was part of Cambiemos about federal politics, it was allied with Sergio Massa in the province. Morales was the first non-Peronist governor in the province since 1983. He opposed activist Milagro Sala, accusing her of leading a government parallel to that of Eduardo Fellner. According to Morales, Sala led a violent and coercive group and children were forced to join her party to attend school. When he was elected governor, Morales ordered all organizations to operate though banks instead of on a cash basis to retain their legal standing. Sala began a protest in front of the government plaza, but most of her supporters accepted Morales' edict. Prosecutor Viviana Montiel asked local judge Raúl Gutiérrez to order Sala's arrest for causing a disturbance and encouraging crime. Gutiérrez agreed, and Sala was arrested on 16 January 2016.
After Sala's arrest, she was charged with embezzlement in connection with housing construction. Although her initial charges were dropped, she remained in jail on the later ones. The case generated international criticism, and the United Nations and the Organization of American States asked for her release. Macri said that the case was under provincial, not federal, jurisdiction. The Supreme Court refused to hear the case, which continues in the province.
Death of Santiago Maldonado
The Benetton Group has territories at the Chubut Province, and the Mapuche indigenous people claim that those territories belonged to them. Facundo Jones Huala, from the Resistencia Ancestral Mapuche group, was jailed because of violent protests, so a group of 8 people organized a picketing protest at the National Route 40, advocating for his liberation. The road was completely blocked by stones, trees and fire. Judge Guido Otranto instructed the Argentine National Gendarmerie to clear the blockade and disperse the protesters. The protesters reacted violently, and then escaped from the Gendarmerie. Some of then crossed the nearby Chubut River swiming, and others hide in the forest next to it.
One of those protesters was Santiago Maldonado, and his whereabouts were unknown after the incident. Kirchnerism and human rights organizations considered that Maldonado was a victim of a forced disappearance, and posited that he would have been the first victim of a wider plan of political repression. Other theories were proposed during the investigation: that he escaped to Chile, that he was hiding, or that he had been murdered some days before in an unrelated crime and never was in the protest to begin with (the protesters were all hooded). All those theories were dismissed. It was also proposed that he could have drowned, but the Mapuches held control of the area and did not allow the Gendarmerie to enter to the place. When they did, the corpse was found in the river. The autopsy confirmed his identity, that the body had no signs of blows or injuries, and that he died by asphyxia and hypotermia. The judicial case was closed a year later, as the judge ruled that there was no forced disappearance and that there was no further evidence pointing towards anything different to an accidental drowning.
- Argentina : Grand Master of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín
- Argentina : Grand Master of the Order of May
- Brazil: Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross, awarded by Michel Temer
- Grand Collar of the Order of Industrial Merit of São Paulo, awarded by the Federation of Industries of the State of São Paulo
- France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, awarded by François Hollande
- Italy: Grand Officer of Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity, awarded by Giorgio Napolitano
- Italy: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, awarded by Sergio Mattarella
- Mexico: Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle, awarded by Enrique Peña Nieto
- Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, awarded by Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
- Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav, awarded by King Harald V
- Spain: Knight of the Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, awarded by Felipe VI of Spain
|Ancestors of Mauricio Macri|
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- "Macri recibirá la Orden de Águila Azteca". elfinanciero (in Spanish). 29 July 2016.
- "Familia Real de Holanda: Máxima de Holanda, anfitriona de Juliana Awada en su visita de Estado a Holanda. Fotogalerías de Casas Reales". vanitatis.elconfidencial.com. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
- "El Rey Harald V y la Reina Sonja en Argentina". Casa Rosada (in Spanish). 2018.
- Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Artusa, Marina (18 October 2015). "Un viaje a los ancestros de los candidatos a presidente". Clarín. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- (several authors) (November 2015). Todo Macri: vida, poder y secretos del nuevo presidente. Argentina: Perfil.
- Novaro, Marcos (2017). El Caso Maldonado (in Spanish). Argentina: Edhasa. ISBN 978-987-628-470-7.
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- Office of the President (in Spanish)
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- Biography by CIDOB (in Spanish)
| Chief of Government of Buenos Aires
Horacio Rodríguez Larreta
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
| President of Argentina
| Chair of the Group of 20
| Person who opened the Olympic Games
| Person who opened the Summer Youth Olympic Games