Test

Member states of NATO

Loading...
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Current NATO members highlighted in blue
Timeline of countries becoming NATO members. Dark blue marks countries that were already NATO members at the given time. Light blue marks new members.

NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe. It was established at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it shall be considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary.[1]

Of the 29 member countries, two are located in North America (Canada and the United States), 26 are in Europe, and one is in Eurasia (Turkey). All members have militaries, except for Iceland which does not have a typical army (but does, however, have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 13 more member nations (10 former Warsaw Pact members and three former Yugoslav republics) from 12 March 1999 to 5 June 2017.

Founding and changes in membership[edit]

NATO has added new members seven times since its founding in 1949, and since 2017 NATO has had 29 members. Twelve countries were part of the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany (in 1955) and Spain (in 1982). In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbors were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of the Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. The Adriatic States Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009, Montenegro in 2017.

United States President Donald Trump expressed interest in withdrawing from the organization during his 2016 presidential campaign, however he later stated the United States would protect allies in the event that Article V is invoked.[2][3][4]

Member states[edit]

* = Member of the EU[5]
Flag Map English common and formal names
[6][7][8]
Domestic common and formal names
[6][7]
Capital
[8][9][10]
Date of accession Population
[a][11]
Area
[a][12]
Notes
Flag of Albania
Map showing Albania in Europe
Albania[i]

Republic of Albania
Albanian: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë
2009-04-01 2,887,000 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1968.
Flag of Belgium
Map showing Belgium in Europe
Belgium*

Kingdom of Belgium
Dutch: België — Koninkrijk België

French: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

German: Belgien — Königreich Belgien
Brussels

Dutch: Brussel

French: Bruxelles

German: Brüssel
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 11,502,204 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi)
Flag of Bulgaria
Map showing Bulgaria in Europe
Bulgaria*

Republic of Bulgaria
Bulgarian: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)
2004-03-29 7,050,034 110,879 km2 (42,811 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Flag of Canada
Map showing Canada in North America
Canada English: Canada

French: Canada
Ottawa 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 37,242,571 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,103 sq mi)
Flag of Croatia
Map showing Croatia in Europe
Croatia*

Republic of Croatia
Croatian: Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb
2009-04-01 4,105,493 56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Flag of the Czech Republic
Map showing the Czech Republic in Europe
Czech Republic*[j] Czech: Česko — Česká republika Prague

Czech: Praha
1999-03-12 10,625,449 78,867 km2 (30,451 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Flag of Denmark
Map showing Denmark in Europe
Denmark*[f]

Kingdom of Denmark
Danish: Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark Copenhagen

Danish: København
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 5,806,015 2,210,000 km2 (853,286 sq mi) Denmark's NATO membership includes the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
Flag of Estonia
Map showing Estonia in Europe
Estonia*

Republic of Estonia
Estonian: Eesti — Eesti Vabariik Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn
2004-03-29 1,315,000 45,228 km2 (17,463 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
Flag of France
Map showing France in Europe
France*

French Republic
French: France — République française Paris

French: Paris
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 67,348,000 643,427 km2 (248,429 sq mi) Membership extended as the Third French Republic (including French Algeria until 1962). France withdrew from the integrated military command in 1966 to pursue an independent defense system but returned to full participation in 2009.
Flag of Germany
Map showing Germany in Europe
Germany*

Federal Republic of Germany
German: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

German: Berlin
1955-05-8 82,800,000 357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi) Commonly known as West Germany when it joined; it later reunited with Saarland in 1957 and with the Berlin territories and East Germany on 3 October 1990. East Germany was a member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1956–1990.
Flag of Greece
Map showing Greece in Europe
Greece*

Hellenic Republic
Greek: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Ellinikí Dimokratía) Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)
1952-02-18 10,816,286 131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi) Membership extended as the Kingdom of Greece. Greece withdrew its forces from NATO's military command structure from 1974 to 1980 as a result of Greco-Turkish tensions following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Flag of Hungary
Map showing Hungary in Europe
Hungary* Hungarian: Magyarország Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest
1999-03-12 9,771,000 93,028 km2 (35,918 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Flag of Iceland
Map showing Iceland in Europe
Iceland

Republic of Iceland
Icelandic: Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 350,710 103,000 km2 (39,769 sq mi) Iceland, the sole member that does not have its own standing army, joined on the condition that it would not be expected to establish one. However, its strategic geographic position in the Atlantic made it an invaluable member. It has a Coast Guard and has contributed a voluntary peacekeeping force, trained in Norway for NATO.
Flag of Italy
Map showing Italy in Europe
Italy*

Italian Republic
Italian: Italia — Repubblica Italiana Rome

Italian: Roma
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 60,494,118 301,340 km2 (116,348 sq mi)
Flag of Latvia
Map showing Latvia in Europe
Latvia*

Republic of Latvia
Latvian: Latvija — Latvijas Republika Riga

Latvian: Rīga
2004-03-29 1,934,379 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
Flag of Lithuania
Map showing Lithuania in Europe
Lithuania*

Republic of Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius
2004-03-29 2,797,000 65,300 km2 (25,212 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of the Soviet Union.
Flag of Luxembourg
Map showing Luxembourg in Europe
Luxembourg*

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg
Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg

French: Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 602,000 2,586 km2 (998 sq mi) 24 August 1949 (Founding member)
Flag of Montenegro
Map showing Montenegro in Europe
Montenegro[i] Montenegrin: Црна Гора, Crna Gora Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица, Podgorica
2017-06-05 642,550 13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Flag of the Netherlands
Map showing the Netherlands in Europe
Netherlands*[f][g][13]

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch: Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

West Frisian: Nederlân — Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen

Papiamento: Hulandu — Reino di Hulanda
Amsterdam (capital)

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: Amsterdam

West Frisian: Amsterdam

Papiamento: Amsterdam

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag

West Frisian: De Haach

Papiamento: Den Haag
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 17,272,990 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq mi)
Flag of Norway
Map showing Norway in Europe
Norway

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg

Northern Sami: Norga — Norgga gonagasriika
Oslo

Norwegian: Oslo
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 5,323,933 323,802 km2 (125,021 sq mi)
Flag of Poland
Map showing Poland in Europe
Poland*

Republic of Poland
Polish: Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa
1999-03-12 38,433,600 312,685 km2 (120,728 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Flag of Portugal
Map showing Portugal in Europe
Portugal*

Portuguese Republic
Portuguese: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa
1949-08-24 (Founding member) 10,291,196 92,090 km2 (35,556 sq mi)
Flag of Romania
Map showing Romania in Europe
Romania* Romanian: România Bucharest

Romanian: București
2004-03-29 19,622,000 238,391 km2 (92,043 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991.
Flag of Slovakia
Map showing Slovakia in Europe
Slovakia*

Slovak Republic
Slovak: Slovensko — Slovenská republika Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava
2004-03-29 5,445,087 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) Member of the rival Warsaw Pact 1955–1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.
Flag of Slovenia
Map showing Slovenia in Europe
Slovenia*

Republic of Slovenia
Slovene: Slovenija — Republika Slovenija Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana
2004-03-29 2,070,050 20,273 km2 (7,827 sq mi) Previously part of Yugoslavia 1945–1991 (Non-aligned).
Flag of Spain
Map showing Spain in Europe
Spain*

Kingdom of Spain
Spanish: España — Reino de España Madrid

Spanish: Madrid
1982-05-30 47,720,291 505,370 km2 (195,124 sq mi)
Flag of Turkey
Map showing Turkey in Europe
Turkey[e][i]

Republic of Turkey
Turkish: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

Turkish: Ankara
1952-02-18 80,810,525[14] 783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi)
Flag of the United Kingdom
Map showing the UK in Europe
United Kingdom*[h]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
English: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Welsh: Deyrnas Unedig — Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
London 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 66,040,229 243,610 km2 (94,058 sq mi)
Flag the United States
Map showing the US in North America
United States

United States of America
English: United States of America Washington, D.C. 1949-08-24 (Founding member) 327,167,434 3,796,742 km2 (1,465,930 sq mi) United States' NATO membership extends to its territories.

Military personnel[edit]

The following list is sourced from the 2018 edition of "The Military Balance" published annually by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Country Active military Reserve military Paramilitary Total Per 1000 capita
(total)
Per 1000 capita
(active)
Albania Albania[15] 8,000 0 500 8,500 2.8 2.6
Belgium Belgium[16] 28,800 5,000 0 33,800 2.9 2.5
Bulgaria Bulgaria[17] 31,300 3,000 0 34,300 4.8 4.4
Canada Canada[18] 63,000 30,000 4,500 97,500 2.7 1.8
Croatia Croatia[19] 15,650 0 3,000 18,650 4.3 3.6
Czech Republic Czech Republic[20] 23,200 2,359 0 25,559 2.4 2.2
Denmark Denmark[21] 16,100 45,700 0 61,800 11 2.9
Estonia Estonia[22] 6,600 12,000 15,800 34,400 27.5 5.3
France France[23] 202,700 72,300 103,400 378,400 5.6 3
Germany Germany[24] 178,600 27,900 500 207,000 2.6 2.2
Greece Greece[25] 141,350 220,500 4,000 365,850 34 13.1
Hungary Hungary[26] 27,800 44,000 12,000 83,800 8.5 2.8
Iceland Iceland[27] 200 200 250 650 1.9 0.6
Italy Italy[28][Note 1] 174,500 18,300 182,350 375,150 6 2.8
Latvia Latvia[29] 5,310 7,850 0 13,160 6.8 2.7
Lithuania Lithuania[30] 18,350 6,700 11,300 36,350 12.9 6.5
Luxembourg Luxembourg[31] 900 0 600 1,500 2.5 1.5
Montenegro Montenegro[32] 1,950 0 10,100 12,050 18.8 3
Netherlands Netherlands[33] 35,410 4,660 5,900 45,970 2.7 2.1
Norway Norway[34] 23,950 38,590 0 62,540 11.8 4.5
Poland Poland[35] 105,000 0 73,400 178,400 4.6 2.7
Portugal Portugal[36] 30,500 211,950 44,000 286,450 26.4 2.8
Romania Romania[37] 69,300 50,000 79,900 199,200 9.3 3.2
Slovakia Slovakia[38] 15,850 0 0 15,850 2.9 2.9
Slovenia Slovenia[39] 7,250 1,760 5,950 14,960 7.6 3.7
Spain Spain[40] 121,200 15,450 76,750 213,400 4.4 2.5
Turkey Turkey[41] 355,200 378,700 156,800 890,700 11 4.4
United Kingdom United Kingdom[42] 150,250 82,650 0 232,900 3.6 2.3
United States United States[43] 1,348,400 857,950 0 2,206,350 6.8 4.2
  1. ^ The paramilitary forces of Italy consists of the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza.

Military expenditures[edit]

The United States has a larger defense expenditure than all other members combined.[44] Criticism of the organization by then newly elected US President Donald Trump caused various reactions from American and European political figures, ranging from ridicule to panic.[45][46][47] Pew Research Center's 2016 survey among its member states showed that while most countries viewed NATO positively, most NATO members preferred keeping their military spending the same. The response to whether their country should militarily aid another NATO country if it were to get into a serious military conflict with Russia was also mixed. Only in the US and Canada did more than 50% of the people answer that they should.[48][49]

Table[edit]

Country Population
(2016 est.)
GDP (nominal)
(2015, US$ millions)
Military expenditures
(2017, US$ millions)[50]
Military expenditures
(2017, % of GDP)[50]
Defence expenditures,
(2014, US$ per capita)
Total military
(2017)[50]
 Albania 3,038,594 11,543 145 1.10 42.2 6,800
 Belgium 11,409,077 454,687 4,458 0.90 468 28,000
 Bulgaria 7,144,653 48,957 871 1.53 116 25,000
 Canada 35,362,905 1,552,386 21,275 1.29 492 73,000
 Croatia 4,313,707 48,850 690 1.26 204 15,000
 Czech Republic 10,644,842 181,858 2,249 1.05 189 24,000
 Denmark 5,593,785 294,951 3,802 1.17 796 17,000
 Estonia 1,258,545 22,704 538 2.08 392 6,200
 France 66,836,154 2,421,560 45,927 1.79 964 209,000
 Germany 80,722,792 3,413,483 45,472 1.24 562 180,000
 Greece 10,773,253 195,320 4,737 2.36 479 106,000
 Hungary 9,874,784 120,636 1,464 1.06 118 19,000
 Iceland 335,878 16,718 4.5 a 14.2 0a
 Italy 62,007,540 1,815,757 23,369 1.12 506 181,000
 Latvia 1,965,686 27,048 529 1.75 150 5,700
 Lithuania 2,854,235 41,267 814 1.73 126 13,000
 Luxembourg 582,291 57,423 288 0.46 594 800
 Montenegro 623,000 3,900 74 1.58 60 1700
 Netherlands 17,016,967 738,419 9,765 1.15 600 41,000
 Norway 5,265,158 389,482 6,698 1.62 1,328 20,000
 Poland 38,523,261 474,893 10,337 1.99 275 111,000
 Portugal 10,833,816 199,077 2,824 1.31 396 26,000
 Romania 21,599,736 177,315 3,658 1.80 118 60,000
 Slovakia 5,445,802 86,629 1,129 1.19 180 12,000
 Slovenia 1,978,029 42,768 478 0.98 233 6,800
 Spain 48,563,476 1,199,715 12,074 0.92 270 121,000
 Turkey 80,274,604 733,642 12,118 1.48 298 387,000
 United Kingdom 64,430,428 2,849,345 55,237 2.12 952 135,560
 United States 327,465,000 20,365,875 685,957 3.57 1,891 1,320,000
 NATO 932,645,526 36,211,501 965,570 2.9 934 3,163,000

Population data from CIA World Factbook
GDP data from IMF[51]
Expenditure data (except Iceland) from SIPRI Military Expenditure Database,[52] Icelandic data (2013) from Statistics Iceland[53]
Military personnel data from NATO[54]
a Iceland has no armed forces.
b 2015 data.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Area and population numbers include integral areas located outside of Europe. The area and population of states with separatist regions includes that of the separatist regions.
  2. ^ a b c The island of Cyprus is located on the Cyprian arc on the edge of the Anatolian Plate and is physiographically associated with Asia, but it is part of European organisations such as the EU.
  3. ^ a b c Turkey has territory in both Europe (dark green) and Asia (light green).
  4. ^ a b Denmark and the Netherlands are constituent countries of the Kingdom of Denmark and the Kingdom of the Netherlands respectively. Both are members of the EU; however, the other constituent countries of their kingdoms are not. In international organisations, the terms Denmark and the Netherlands are often used as short names for their respective kingdoms as a whole.
  5. ^ The Netherlands is also known as "Holland", but this name properly refers only to a region of the country. See Netherlands (terminology).
  6. ^ a b c d The United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) consists of the countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The UK is responsible for the foreign relations and ultimate good governance of the Crown dependencies of Guernsey, the Isle of Man and Jersey, which are otherwise separate. England, Scotland and Wales make up the island of Great Britain (or simply Britain), which is sometimes used synonymously with the United Kingdom.
  7. ^ a b c d e f EU candidate country.
  8. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1949-04-04. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  2. ^ "Trump threatens to quit NATO: White House official - France 24". France 24. 2017-05-18. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  3. ^ Landler, Michael D. Shear, Mark; Kanter, James (2017-05-25). "In NATO Speech, Trump Is Vague About Mutual Defense Pledge". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  4. ^ Lauter, David (2017-05-26). "A glowing orb and a not-so-glowing review of the GOP healthcare bill: Trump's week was filled with events he didn't control". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  5. ^ "Member States". Europa. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Names". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  7. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  8. ^ a b "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  9. ^ "Field Listing :: Capital". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  10. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 13 September 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  11. ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. July 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  12. ^ "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  13. ^ "Netherlands". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-17.
  14. ^ "Turkey's population hits 79.81 million people, increasing over one million". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  15. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 82
  16. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 85
  17. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 88
  18. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 43
  19. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 90
  20. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 94
  21. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 96
  22. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 98
  23. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 102
  24. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 107-108
  25. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 111
  26. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 114
  27. ^ IISS 2018, p. 116
  28. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 118
  29. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 122
  30. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 124
  31. ^ IISS 2018, p. 125-126
  32. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 128
  33. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 130
  34. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 132-133
  35. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 135
  36. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 138
  37. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 140
  38. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 145
  39. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 147
  40. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 148
  41. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 156-157
  42. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 160-161
  43. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 46
  44. ^ Where Does The Relationship Between NATO And The U.S. Go From Here?, Huffington Post
  45. ^ NATO allies boost defense spending in the wake of Trump criticism, The Washington Post
  46. ^ Former US ambassador to Nato in withering criticism of Donald Trump, The Independent
  47. ^ Shaken by Trump’s Criticism of NATO, Europe Mulls Building Own Military Force, Voice Of America
  48. ^ Support for NATO is widespread among member nations, Pew Research
  49. ^ U.S. would defend NATO despite Trump's criticism, Europeans believe: study, Reuters
  50. ^ a b c The Secretary General's Annual Report 2017. NATO. Published in 2018. See pages 108 - 112.
  51. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database April 2016". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  52. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database 2015" (XLS). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  53. ^ "Central government total expenditure by function 1998-2013". Statistics Iceland. Statistics Iceland. 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2015-06-08.
  54. ^ "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence" (PDF). NATO. NATO. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.