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Mexican Air Force

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Mexican Air Force
Fuerza Aérea Mexicana
Logo of the Mexican Air Force.svg
Mexican Air Force symbol
Founded June 19, 1913; 105 years ago (1913-06-19)
Country  Mexico
Allegiance Secretariat of National Defense
Type Air force
Role Aerial warfare
Size 36,000 (2018)
Part of  Mexican Army
Nickname(s) "FAM", "Fuerza Aérea Mexicana"
Motto(s) Honor, Valor y Lealtad
"Honor, Valor & Loyalty"
Colors Green, white, and red
Anniversaries February 10
Engagements Mexican Revolution
World War II
Chiapas revolt
Mexican Drug War
Commanders
Current
commander
Miguel Enrique Vallín Osuna [1]
Insignia
Roundel Roundel of Mexico.svg Roundel of Mexico - Low Visibility.svg
Fin flash Fin Flash of Mexico.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack PC-7, PC-9M, MD 500, T-6C+
Electronic
warfare
Embraer R-99
Helicopter Mil Mi-8, Mil Mi-17, EC-725, UH-60, MD 500
Reconnaissance C-90A King Air, Sabreliner 75A, Fairchild C-26
Trainer PC-7, PC-9M
Transport C-130, Boeing 787, Boeing 757, IAI Arava

The Mexican Air Force (FAM; Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces. It is a component of the Mexican Army and depends on the National Defense Secretariat (SEDENA). The objective of the FAM is to defend the integrity, independence, and sovereignty of Mexico. Its auxiliary tasks include internal security, assisting with public works, and natural disaster management. Since December 2017, its commander is Miguel Enrique Vallín Osuna.[1]

Mexican Revolution[edit]

The Curtiss aircraft Sonora was used for observation and bombing. Mexico, 1913.
Five Mexican pilots that attended the Moissant School of aviation. From Left: Alberto Salinas Carranza, Gustavo Salinas Camiña, Juan Pablo Aldasoro Suárez, Horacio Ruiz Gaviño, Eduardo Aldasoro Suárez.

The official predecessor of the Air Force was the Army's Auxiliary Aerial Militia Squadron (Escuadrilla Aérea de la Milicia Auxiliar del Ejército), created during the Mexican Revolution in April 1913 by the Secretary of War and Navy General Manuel Mondragón, who authorized pilots Miguel Lebrija and Juan Guillermo Villasana to bomb targets on Campo de Balbuena, in Mexico City.

On February 5, 1915, the leader of the Constitutionalist Army, Venustiano Carranza, founded the Arma de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation Arm), which would become the current air force. Its first commander was Lt. Alberto Salinas Carranza.[2]

Other rebellions[edit]

In 1925, due to the shortage of airplanes caused by World War I, Mexico set up the National Aviation Workshops (TNCA) to design and build its own airplanes and aeroengines. When U.S. Colonel Ralph O'Neill was hired to revamp the Mexican Air Force in 1920, he reported to General Plutarco Elías Calles that most of the aircraft available had to be replaced since they were obsolete and worn away. Therefore, Mexico acquired some British Avro 504K and Avro 504J airplanes, which later would be made in Mexico with the name Avro Anáhuac. In addition, in May 1920, Mexico acquired thirteen twin-engine bombers Farman F.50.[3]

Alfredo Lezama Alvarez, Unknown pilot, Luis Farell; on the far right is Eliseo Martín del Campo. Mid-late 1920s.

Between the years 1923 and 1929, Mexico found itself immersed in a wave of violent territorial, religious and military armed rebellions, which required the Air Force to quickly deploy its forces and provide air support wherever the federal army requested them. Some of these conflicts, that were decided mostly by the assertive use of the Air Force, are mentioned below.

On December 7, 1923, former President Adolfo de la Huerta launched a military coup (delahuertista rebellion) against the government of President Álvaro Obregón. The situation was extremely critical, because along with de la Huerta, about 60% of the army revolted, including various high-ranking generals across the country. The power tilted back in favor of the federal forces when the United States agreed to furnish the Mexican government with a fleet of new de Havilland DH-4B aircraft equipped with the Liberty motor, armed with Lewis and Vickers machine guns and able to carry bombs. The military coup was then suffocated by February 1924.

A territorial war was that of the Sonora Yaqui Indians who demanded by force that previous territorial treaties were implemented. The conflict lasted from 1926 to 1927, and it came to an end when a new treaty was implemented.

When President Plutarco Elías Calles pushed for the creation of the 'Mexican Apostolic Catholic Church', independent of Rome, it unleashed a widespread religious war known as the Cristero War. This long civil war lasted from 1926 to 1929.

In May 1927, while General Obregón seemed keen to impose the presidency to General Calles, General Arnulfo R. Gómez launched a military coup against both Obregón and Calles. His command posts were located in the cities of Puebla and Veracruz, where he led approximately 200 federal deserters, ammunition and weapons. The air force played a key role in their defeat.

Then, on March 3, 1929, a serious military coup took place, led by General José Gonzalo Escobar and heeded by various other generals. In these days, the air force's remaining airplanes consisted of worn and shot Bristol F.2 Fighter, Bristol Boarhound, de Havilland DH-4B and Douglas O-2C, a force that was not suitable to defeat Escobar's power.[4][5] In this context, the Mexican government convinced the U.S. government to promote the peace south of its border and quickly make available twelve new OU-2M Corsair with the 400 hp Wasp engine, nine Douglas O-2M, four Stearman C3B and six Waco Taper Wings. Only two weeks after making the request, the U.S. government agreed, and several Mexican pilots travelled to Brownsville, Texas, and New York to pick up the new aircraft. The key victory was decided in late March 1929 at the Battle of Jiménez, Chihuahua, where after several days of air raids, Escobar was defeated by General Calles, taking about 6000 prisoners.[6] This rebellion was quite serious, since a third of the officials and nearly 30,000 soldiers rebelled; in two months, more than 2000 men had been killed.

In May 1938, the Governor of San Luis Potosí, General Saturnino Cedillo, declared himself in rebellion and President Lázaro Cárdenas travelled there to personally mount the campaign against the revolt. The Air Force organized a mixed fleet of 17 aircraft that included some new V-99M Corsair, engaging the enemy assertively when spotted. Cedillo quickly realized he had no chance in open fields against the air force and ran to the Huasteca Hills, where his men dispersed, abandoning him.[7]

With the imminent collapse of the Spanish Republic in 1939, the Mexican government took delivery of military aircraft destined for the Republic, strengthening its arsenal.

World War II[edit]

Mexican P-47D Thunderbolt over the Philippines (1945)
Display of the uniforms of the Escuadrón 201 at The National Museum of the United States Air Force.

The Escuadrón 201, a P-47D fighter squadron of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (Mexican Expeditionary Air Force), served in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II. It consisted of 25 aircraft and had 300 airmen and supporting staff. The 201st Squadron, completed 96 combat missions over the Philippines (Battle of Luzon) and Formosa (Taiwan). It is the only unit of the Mexican armed forces ever to see overseas combat.[8]

Cold War era[edit]

The first jet aircraft operated by the Mexican Air Force was the subsonic de Havilland Vampire Mk.I. Mexico received 17 Vampires during late 1960 and early 1961. This jet was nicknamed "The Flying Avocado" by Mexican flight crews due to the ovoid shape of its fuselage and the dark green night camouflage adopted by its first units. The Vampires were not popular with Mexican fighter pilots because of its lack of ejection seats. The FAM finally retired them in 1970.

The Mexican Vampires were initially complemented by 15 Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star subsonic fighter aircraft received also in late 1961. Because of its more modern design, an ejection seat system and several other attributes, the T-33 was well liked by most FAM pilots and became a huge success as a patrol and interceptor aircraft. During the seventies and early eighties an additional 20 or more T-33s were procured by the FAM to replace aircraft lost in accidents and to increase the size of the fleet after the retirement of the Vampires.

1980s[edit]

In 1982, the FAM received 12 Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II jets (10 F-5Es and 2 F-5Fs). The F-5 gave Mexico its first supersonic platform and saw the formation of Air Squadron 401. Since the 1980s the F-5 became the main Mexican fighter jet while the remaining operational T-33s were used for subsonic support and light attack roles.[9]

In 1983 one F-5E was lost in an accident that occurred during a target practice exercise in the state of Chihuahua.

Chiapas conflict[edit]

On January 1, 1994, the day the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, hundreds of guerrillas from the previously unknown Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) occupied several towns and cities in the southern state of Chiapas.

The FAM was mobilized to support Army units, sending almost every available helicopter to the territory of operations. Units involved included the recently formed 214th and 215th Special Operations Squadrons, equipped with a mix of Bell 212 assault- and MD.530F scout helicopters. Up to 40 helicopters were deployed to support an initial deployment of 10,000 ground troops.

Bell 212s were armed in two configurations: for fire support with twin MAG 7.62-mm gun pods and cabin-mounted GPMGs; or as gunship, with LAU-32 70-mm rocket launchers, a twin MAG gun-pod and cabin mounted MAG GPMGs.

Pumas, Bell 205s, 206s and 212s from the 209th were also deployed, however, FAM's helicopter assets were scarce and the Mexican Army had to rely on almost every other government agency's helicopters for general support tasks. Almost any flyable aircraft from the National Attorney's Office (PGR) was also deployed, including Bell 206s and 212s, as well as the Navy's recently acquired Mi-8MTV-1s. Eventually the Army deployed some 70,000 ground troops and air support proved to be insufficient; hence the decision was taken to considerably expand the FAM's helicopter fleet.

By December 1994, FAM had bought additional 12 armed MD.530MG 'Defender' and four UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters,[10] which it grouped into the 216th Special Operations Squadron. This unit was the spearhead of operation "Arco Iris" (Rainbow) to re-take several towns that had fallen under rebel control in January 1994. The new militarized Defenders came armed with M2AC machine-guns and LAU-68A 70-mm rocket launchers. Three additional units were ordered in 1996 and delivered as attrition replacements in March 1998. Black Hawks wore 1191 to 1194 serials and are being used for special operations.

Although the FAM received 18 surplus Bell 206s from the Attorney General's office (PGR) in the mid-1990s, the main need identified by the FAM High Command was for a new fleet of transport helicopters that would allow it to support the Army with an adequate airlift capability.[11]

Recent times[edit]

On 16 September 1995, after more than 30 yearly military parade flights without incidents, an F-5E collided in mid-air with three Lockheed T-33s during the parade for the Independence of Mexico. All aircraft were lost and a total of 10 deaths occurred. Since then, for safety reasons, military parade flyovers in Mexico have been smaller in participation.

In 2007, after more than 45 years in service, the last operational T-33s were retired. In 2012, the F-5 fighter jets had their 30th anniversary in Mexican Air Force service.[9][12] Due to high operation costs, lack of parts, and the extreme age of the aircraft, the Mexican Air Force retired their 3 remaining F-5 in late 2017.[13]

Because of the ongoing Mexican Drug War, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, UAVs, light attack aircraft, helicopters and rapid troop transports.[14]

Structure[edit]

A national commander under the orders of the Secretary of National Defense is in charge of the Mexican Air Force. The second-in-command is the Air Force Chief of Staff, who supervises a Deputy Chief of Operations and a Deputy Chief of Management. The Air Force divides the country's territory into four regions: Northwestern (Mexicali, Baja California), Northeastern (Chihuahua, Chihuahua), Central (Mexico City) and Southeastern (Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas); each region is commanded by a general. The regional headquarters are in charge of 18 air bases across the country:

Air Group
Unit
Aircraft
Notes
1st Military Air Station – Mexico City International Airport, Ciudad de Mexico – Central Air Region
General Coordination of the Presidential Air Transport Unit (CGTAP)
High Command Special Air Transport Unit (UETAAM) Boeing 737, IAI 201, JetStar, King Air, SA 330J, UH-60 Black Hawk
1st Military Air BaseZumpango, Estado de Mexico – Central Air Region
1st Air Group 101 Air Squadron Bell 412, Eurocopter EC725, UH-60 Black Hawk Mexico received two of the twelve EC-725; the first two are assigned to the 101 Air Squadron.[15]
112 Air Squadron Bell 212, MD 530MG
3rd Air Group 301 Air Squadron C-295, IAI 101B/102/201
302 Air Squadron C-27J Spartan, C-130 Hercules
303 Air Squadron Mi-8T/MTV-1
Aerial Surveillance Squadron C-26 Metroliner, R/P-99, SA2-37B
VIP Transport Squadron Boeing 757, Super Puma
2nd Military Air BaseIxtepec, Oaxaca – Southeast Air Region
1st Air Group 402 Air Squadron PC-7
3rd Military Air Base – El Ciprés, Baja California – Northwest Air Region
5th Air Group 106 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
4th Military Air Base – Cozumel, Quintana Roo – Southeast Air Region
2nd Air Group 201 Air Squadron T-6C+ [16]
5th Military Air Base – Zapopan, Jalisco – Central Air Region
5th Air Group 105 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
111 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
Air Force Academy Preparatory Squadron Beech F33C
Primary Squadron Aermacchi SF.260
Advanced Squadron Pilatus PC-7
6th Military Air BaseTuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas – Southeast Air Region
2nd Air Group 202 Air Squadron PC-7, PC-9M
7th Military Air Base – Pie de la Cuesta, Guerrero – Air Region
2nd Air Group 204 Air Squadron PC-7
5th Air Group 102 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
8th Military Air Base – Mérida, Yucatán – Air Region
5th Air Group 104 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212, CH-53D Yas'ur, Cessna 210
9th Military Air Base – La Paz, Baja California Sur – Northwest Air Region
2nd Air Group 203 Air Squadron PC-7
10th Military Air Base – Culiacán, Sinaloa – Northwest Air Region
4th Air Group Maintenance Center Bell 206, Cessna 206
5th Air Group 109 Air Squadron Cessna 182
11th Military Air Base – Santa Gertrudis, Chihuahua – Northeast Air Region
Air Force Airtactics Military School (EMAATFA) PC-7
12th Military Air BaseTijuana, Baja California – Northwest Air Region
no flying units assigned
13th Military Air BaseChihuahua, Chihuahua – Northeast Air Region
5th Air Group 110 Air Squadron Cessna 182
14th Military Air BaseApodaca, Nuevo León – Northeast Air Region
4th Air Group 102 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
5th Air Group 108 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
15th Military Air Base – San Juan Bautista la Raya, Oaxaca – Air Region
5th Air Group 103 Air Squadron Bell 212
16th Military Air Base – Ciudad Pemex, Tabasco – Air Region
no flying units assigned
17th Military Air Base – Copalar, Chiapas – Air Region
no flying units assigned
18th Military Air BaseHermosillo, Sonora – Northwest Air Region
3rd Air Group 3rd Aerial Surveillance Squadron C-26 Metroliner, Pilatus PC-6 R/P-99
5th Air Group 107 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Pilatus PC-6


Ranks[edit]

Air Force ranks are the same as in Mexico's Army, with the exception of generals.[17]

Pilot selection and training[edit]

The FAM offers higher education, middle education, technical training, tactical training and specialized technical training in its various campuses:

Air Force Academy[edit]

Main facade of the Air Force Academy

Since the National School of Aviation was opened in 1915, it took different names over the years until finally, in 1959 it joined the military school of meteorology, mechanics and aviation specialists, forming the leading campus in military aviation education: 'El Colegio del Aire' (Air Force Academy), which since September 9, 1959, has guided the formation of Air Force officers.[18] The Air Force Academy is an all academic institution of the Mexican Air Force and comprises four schools: 'Military Aviation School', 'Maintenance and Supply Military School', 'Air Force Military Specialist School', and the 'Military Troops' Air Force Speciaslist School'.[19]

Military Aviation School (EMA)

Admission to the Air Force is through the mechanism of military recruitment that takes place every year at The Ministry of Defense. The FAM currently offers tertiary level studies – highlighting that of Military Pilot, which spans 4 years at the facilities of the Air Force Academy located on the Military Air Base No. 5 in Zapopan, Jalisco.[20]

The subjects taught in pilot training include: tactics of the branches of aviation, general aviation tactics, meteorology, air navigation, air traffic control, radio communications and culture in general, along with approximately 250 hours of flight. During the first year, the training is theoretical. During the second year, Beechcraft Bonanza aircraft are used for flight instruction. During the third the cadets are trained Aermacchi SF260EU for aerobatics, and later on Pilatus PC-7 for advanced flight tactics, including combat. Within each of these stages, the cadets are trained in aerial acrobatics, stage tactical instrument flight, visual flying rules (VFR), radio operations, among others, which increase in complexity as the cadets' training progresses.[21] The first female aviator to graduate as a pilot in the history of FAM, Andrea Cruz, became a cadet at the Military Aviation School in 2007.

Military Air Force Specialist School (EMEFA);

Military School of Air Force Specialist offers a comprehensive scholarship lasting three years for officer training meteorologists and flight control, obtaining at the graduate level of lieutenant. His duties are to provide meteorological information and control of military or civil aircraft.[22]

School of the Air Force Special Forces (EMTEFA)

Military School of special troops of the Air Force is a establishment of military education that has as its mission to train sergeants in seconds aviation maintenance, supply lines, electronic aviation and military aviation. The school is located in the St. Lucía military base.[23]

Military School of Maintenance and Supply (EMMA)

In this school, officers are trained as aviation maintenance specialists, aviation electronics specialists, weapons and air supply lines.[24]

Recruitment[edit]

To enter any of the campuses of the Air Force, SEDENA convenes a competitive entrance examination which is held each year. The requirements are:

  • Mexican citizenship and have no other nationality
  • Be the son of Mexican born parents
  • Minimum age of 15 years at December 31 of the year in course
  • Maximum age of 20 years at December 31 of the year in course
  • Have completed high school or equivalent
  • Minimum height of 1.65 m

In order to be admitted to any school of the Mexican Air Force Academy mentioned above, the applicant should also perform the following tests: physical, medical, cultural, and aviation psychology. In some cases, the psychological aeromedical 2nd level examination may also be required.[25]

Aircraft inventory[edit]

Mexico’s Boeing 787 on touch down
A Eurocopter EC725 at Mexico City International Airport
A T-6C Texan II on display
A Bell 412EP of the Mexican Air Force
Fuerza Aerea Mexicana C-130
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat aircraft
Pilatus PC-7 Switzerland light attack 35[26]
AWACS
Embraer E-99 Brazil AEW&C 1[26]
Maritime patrol
Embraer R-99 Brazil maritime patrol R-99 2[26]
Reconnaissance
King Air United States surveillance 350 1[26]
Metroliner IV United States reconnaissance 3[26]
Cessna Citation I United States surveillance 2[26]
Transport
Boeing 787 United States VIP 787-8 1[27]
Boeing 737 United States VIP 2 [26]
C-27J Spartan Italy utility transport 4[26]
CASA C-295 Spain utility transport C-295M/C-295W 8[26]
C-130 Hercules United States transport C-130H/L/L-100 3[26]
Super King Air United States utility transport 90/300/350 7[26]
Turbo Commander United States transport 3[26]
Pilatus PC-6 Switzerland utility transport 3[26] STOL capable aircraft
Helicopters
MD500 United States utility 18[26]
Bell 206 United States utility 66[26]
Bell 407 United States utility 14[26]
Bell 412 United States utility 11[26]
Bell UH-1 United States utility UH-1H 7[26]
Sikorsky UH-60 United States utility UH-60M 24 [26]
Mil Mi-17 Russia utility Mi-8/17 19[26]
Eurocopter EC725 France SAR / utility 11 [26]
Trainer aircraft
Pilatus PC-7 Switzerland trainer 31[26]
Pilatus PC-9 Switzerland trainer 1[26]
Grob G 120TP Germany basic trainer 25[26]
SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 Italy trainer 25[26]
T-6 Texan II United States trainer T-6C 56 [26]
Bell 206 United States trainer / utility 66[26]
UAV
Elbit Hermes 450 Israel surveillance 3[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b General de División Piloto Aviador Diplomado de Estado Mayor Aéreo Miguel Enrique Vallín Osuna. Comandante de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana. SEDENA, 1 December 2017.
  2. ^ "Los Orígenes". Sedena.gob.mx. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  3. ^ "Post-WWII Highlights in Latin American Aviation History". Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies. 
  4. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector (May 10, 2003). "The Azcarate Corsair". The Latin American Aviation Historical Society. Retrieved March 22, 2009. [dead link]
  5. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector. "Los Corsarios Mexicanos" (in Spanish). Sistema Informativo Aeronáutico Latinoamericano. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  6. ^ External links to the battle at Jiménez, Chihuahua, on 1929:[1] Archived November 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-11. , "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  7. ^ Time magazine. June 6, 1938.
  8. ^ Klemen, L. "201st Mexican Fighter Squadron". The Netherlands East Indies 1941–1942. 201st Mexican Fighter Squadron
  9. ^ a b Vega, Aurora (2012-09-29). "Resguardan Aviones F-5 El Cielo Mexicano | Excelsior En Línea" (in Spanish). Excelsior En Línea. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 
  10. ^ "Summary of US Military Involvement in Chiapas, Mexico". Ainfos.ca. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  11. ^ Guevara, Inigo (April 13, 2005). "Central and Latin America Database". Aztec Rotors. Retrieved May 20, 2009. 
  12. ^ Adrián, Jazmín (July 4, 2012). "Squadron 401 of F5 Northrop by Mexican Air Force celebrates 30 years". Archived from the original on November 25, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014. 
  13. ^ [2].
  14. ^ Jordi Díez; Ian Nicholls (January 2006). "The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition" (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. 
  15. ^ "Refuerzan la flota aérea de Sedena". Noroeste.com.mx. Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  16. ^ http://sipse.com/novedades/ozumel-beechcraft-t-6c-texan-ii-cielo-aeronaves-ejercitpo-cielo-entrenamiento-litorales-230216.html
  17. ^ Ranks
  18. ^ Douglas, Lawrence; Hansen, Taylor (2006). "Los orígenes de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana 1913 -1915" (in Spanish). Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Adiestramiento y Capacitación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  20. ^ FAM Virtual
  21. ^ "Escuela Militar de Aviación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. March 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Escuela Militar de Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Escuela Militar de Tropas Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Escuela Militar de Mantenimiento y Abastecimiento" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Admisión 2009 a Planteles Militares" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal Insight. 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  27. ^ "Mexican air force 787 starts VIP conversion". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  28. ^ Garibian, Pablo (2010-08-24). "Mexico buys drones, may use for marijuana search". Reuters. 

External links[edit]