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National Progressive Front (Syria)

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National Progressive Front

الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية
PresidentBashar al-Assad
Vice-PresidentMohammad al-Shaar[1]
FounderHafez al-Assad
Founded1972; 47 years ago (1972)
HeadquartersDamascus
IdeologyPro-Syrian government
Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
Pan-Arabism
Secularism
Internal factions:
Neo-Ba'athism
Nasserism
Communism
Syrian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Islamic nationalism
Democratic socialism
Political positionBig tent[2]
People's Council
200 / 250
Council of Ministers
20 / 35
Website
pnf.org.sy

The National Progressive Front (Arabic: الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية‎, al-Jabha al-Waṭaniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF) is a political alliance of parties in Syria that supports the anti-imperialist and Arab nationalist orientation of the government and accepts the "leading role in society" of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party, the largest party in the NPF.

History[edit]

The Front was established in 1972 by Syrian president Hafez al-Assad to provide for a limited degree of participation in government by political parties other than the ruling Ba'ath Party.[3] Its constitution provides that the Ba'ath Party controls 50% plus one of the votes on its executive committee. A number of seats in the People's Council of Syria are reserved for members of NPF parties other than the Ba'ath Party. These minor parties are legally required to accept the leadership of the Ba'ath Party. The non-Ba'athist parties in the Progressive Front, for example, are not allowed to canvass for supporters in the army or the student body which are "reserved exclusively for the Ba'ath."[4]

From 1972 to 2011, only parties participating in the NPF had been legally permitted to operate in Syria. The Legislative Decree on Parties law of 2011,[5] Legislative Decree on General Elections Law of 2011[6] and the new Syrian constitution of 2012[7] introduced multi-party system in Syria.

After previously being a part of NPF, Syrian Social Nationalist Party joined the opposition, Popular Front for Change and Liberation, for the May 2012 election to the parliament. However, the SSNP supported the re-election of Bashar al-Assad in the June 2014 presidential election and subsequently rejoined the front.[8]

Constituent parties[edit]

The NPF is currently composed of the following political parties:

Party Leader Ideology People's Council of Syria Government
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party[9]
حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قُطْر سوريا
Bashar al-Assad Ba'athism
Pan-Arabism
172 / 250
government
Syrian Social Nationalist Party[10]
الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي
Fares al-Saad Syrian nationalism
Secularism
7 / 250
government
Syrian Communist Party (Bakdash and Unified factions)[11]
الحزب الشيوعي السوري
Ammar Bakdash
Hanin Nimir
Communism
4 / 250
government
Arab Socialist Union Party[12]
حزب الاتحاد الاشتراكي العربي في سورية
Safwan al-Qudsi Nasserism
Arab nationalism
2 / 250
government
Socialist Unionist Party[13]
حزب الوحدويين الاشتراكيين
Shaaban Shaheen[14] Nasserism
Arab socialism
2 / 250
government
National Covenant Party[15]
حركة العهد الوطني
Ghassan Abdul Aziz Osman Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
1 / 250
government
Arab Socialist Movement[16]
حركة الاشتراكيين العرب
Omar Adnan al-Alawi Ba'athism
Arab socialism
0 / 250
external support
Socialist Social Democratic Party[17]
الحزب الوحدوي الاشتراكي الديمقراطي‎
Fadlallah Nasreddine Socialism
Trade unionism
0 / 250
external support
Arabic Democratic Union Party[18]
حزب الاتحاد العربي الديمقراطي
Mohamed Abdel Aziz Arida Nasserism
Arab nationalism
0 / 250
external support

The NPF also includes other non-political organisations that support Assad's presidency:

Electoral history[edit]

Syrian People's Council elections[edit]

Election Seats +/–
1973
186 / 186
Increase 186
1977
195 / 195
Increase 9
1981
195 / 195
Steady
1986
195 / 195
Steady
1990
250 / 250
Increase 55
1994
250 / 250
Steady
1998
250 / 250
Steady
2003
250 / 250
Steady
2007
250 / 250
Steady
2012
168 / 250
Decrease 82
2016
200 / 250
Increase 32


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=138&id=78
  2. ^ https://www.joshualandis.com/blog/the-militiafication-of-the-assad-regime/
  3. ^ Elizabeth O'Bagy (7 June 2012). "Syria's Political Struggle: Spring 2012" (Backgrounder). ISW. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  4. ^ Seale, Patrick, Asad, the Struggle for the Middle East, University of California Press, 1989, p. 176
  5. ^ http://sana.sy/eng/361/2011/08/04/362192.htm
  6. ^ http://sana.sy/eng/361/2011/08/04/362216.htm
  7. ^ SANA Syrian News Agency - Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic Approved in Popular Referendum on February 27, 2012, Article 8 Archived October 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "SSNP Supports Bashar al-Assad's Presidential Nomination". 7 May 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  9. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  10. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  11. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  12. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  13. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  14. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113&id=32&lang=ar
  15. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  16. ^ http://www.aymennjawad.org/19789/quwat-muqatili-al-ashair-tribal-auxiliary-forces
  17. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113
  18. ^ http://pnf.org.sy/?page=category&category_id=113

External links[edit]