Nordic skiing

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Nordic skiing
Anna Haag 2011-02-28.jpg
Anna Haag in the women's 10 km classic race at the 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo, Norway.
Equipmentskis, skipoles
Olympic1924 – present
Paralympic1976 – present

Nordic skiing encompasses the various types of skiing in which the toe of the ski boot is fixed to the binding in a manner that allows the heel to rise off the ski,[1] unlike Alpine skiing, where the boot is attached to the ski from toe to heel. Recreational disciplines include cross-country skiing and Telemark skiing.

Olympic events are competitive cross-country skiing, ski jumping and nordic combined—competition in which athletes both cross-country ski and ski jump. The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships host these sports, plus Telemark skiing,[2] at the championship level in the winter of every odd-numbered year.[3] Biathlon combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting, but is not included as a Nordic discipline under FIS rules. Instead, it comes under the jurisdiction of the International Biathlon Union.[4]

The biomechanics of competitive cross-country skiing and ski jumping have been the subject of serious study. Cross-country skiing requires strength and endurance and ski jumping requires aerodynamic efficiency, both of which requirements translate into specific skills[5] to be optimized in training and competition.[6]


  1. ^ Crego, Robert (2003). Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Sports and games through history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 274. ISBN 9780313316104.
  2. ^ "The International Ski Competition Rules (ICR)—Joint Regulations for Telemark" (PDF). fis-ski.com. International Ski Federation. 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  3. ^ "Rules for the Organization of FIS World Championships" (PDF). fis-ski.com. International Ski Federation. 2015. Retrieved 2016-11-08. The FIS World Championships in the Alpine, Nordic, Freestyle Skiing and Snowboard events are organised every uneven year.
  4. ^ Müller, Erich, ed. (2012). Science and Nordic Skiing V. 5. Meyer & Meyer Verlag. p. 700. ISBN 9781841263533.
  5. ^ Linnamo, Vesa, ed. (2007). Science and Nordic Skiing. Meyer & Meyer Verlag. p. 304. ISBN 9781841262291.
  6. ^ Prokop, Dave, ed. (1975). Training for Nordic Skiing. World Publications. p. 95. ISBN 9780890370520.