Test

Northern Aleppo offensive (March–June 2016)

Loading...
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Northern Aleppo offensive (March–June 2016)
Part of the Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War and the Syrian Civil War
2016 Aleppo campaign (within Northern Syria).svg
Territorial control in northern Aleppo, as of 3 September 2016
  Controlled by the Syrian Armed Forces
  Controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces
  Controlled by the Syrian opposition
Date10 March – 8 June 2016
(2 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
Location
Result

Indecisive

  • The rebels capture the town al-Rai,[4] its border crossing[5] and 20 villages[6][7][8]
  • ISIL recaptures al-Rai, its border crossing[9] and 34 villages[10][11]
  • ISIL attack on Azaz and Mare' repelled and rebels capture 11 villages, including Sawran[12]
Belligerents

Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army

Army of Conquest[1]
CJTF-OIR

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Commanders and leaders
Turkey İsmet Yılmaz[1](Defence Minister)
Turkey Gen. Hulusi Akar[1]
(Chief of General Staff)
Turkey Hakan Fidan[1]
(MİT head)
Syrian opposition Firas Paşa[1]
(Muntasir Billah Brigade)
Unknown
Units involved
Military of ISIL
Strength
Syrian opposition 1,500 (in Mare')[21]
Casualties and losses
61 killed (late May ISIL assault)[22] 578 killed (Turkish and rebel claims)[23][24][25][26][27]

The Northern Aleppo offensive (March–June 2016) was a series of military operations launched by Syrian opposition forces against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and vice versa in the northern Aleppo Governorate, near the Syria–Turkey border, the city of Azaz and the town of Mare'. The offensive is supported by airstrikes against ISIL conducted by the United States-led CJTF-OIR coalition and artillery shelling by the Turkish Armed Forces.[16][28]

The offensive[edit]

Initial rebel gains[edit]

Between 10 and 14 March, rebel forces seized three villages, including Dudyan.[29][30] On 17 March, ISIL recaptured Dudyan,[31] but lost it again the next day.[7]

On 19 March 2016, rebel forces captured two villages (Toqli and Mregel), north of Aleppo, from ISIL.[32] The following day, Ahrar ash-Sham and the Sultan Murad Brigade exchanged artillery and mortar fire with ISIL. At the end of the battle, ISIL recaptured the villages of Toqli and Mregel after inflicting heavy casualties on the rebels. The two sides also launched shells at the villages of Qara Kopri and Ghazl, causing civilian casualties.[16] On 30 March, rebel forces once again seized Toqli and Mregel. Concurrently, Turkish artillery shelled ISIS positions in the village of Jakkah.[8]

Rebels advance and capture al-Rai[edit]

On 1 April, ISIL launched an offensive toward the Levant Front headquarters in the outskirts of Mregel. The attack was repelled by the Sham Legion and the Falcons of Mount Zawiya Brigade and an ISIL bulldozer was destroyed.[15] The rebels than proceeded to capture two villages.[33] Two days later, the al-Moutasem Brigade, the Sultan Murad Brigade, and the Sham Legion launched an offensive toward the ISIL stronghold of al-Rai to the east, capturing eight villages and reached within four kilometers from al-Rai by 4 April.[34] Some of the villages that were seized were: Tal Sha'er,[35] Raqbya, Qantra and Shaabanya.[36] As of 5 April, the rebels had captured at least 16 villages in the area.[37]

On 7 April, with close air support from A-10 Thunderbolt IIs,[38] the rebels captured most of al-Rai[18] and the nearby border crossing.[5] As of 8 April, the rebels had full control of al-Rai, along with 17 other villages.[4][6]

First ISIL counter-attack and recapture of al-Rai[edit]

Two days later, early on 10 April, ISIL launched a counter-attack,[39] which included a three-pronged attack against the town of Mare',[40] and quickly recaptured eight villages.[41][42] Still, the rebels once again seized four of the villages several hours later.[43][44] During the day, the international Coalition conducted at least 22 air-strikes on ISIL positions as ground fighting continued.[45] On 11 April, ISIL continued with its counter-attack and retook al-Rai[46] and four other villages.[9][47] In all, ISIL had recaptured in the previous two days, beside al-Rai, 17 other villages.[48] The ISIL counter-offensive included attacks by 11 suicide car-bombers against rebel positions.[49] At the end of the day, the rebels managed once again to retake control of eight villages.[50][48] As of 12 April, ISIL was reportedly in control of 13 localities they had previously lost, including al-Rai.[51]

By 13 April, the rebels managed to retake three villages once again.[52][53] However, on 14 April, ISIL seized 10 new villages, practically cutting rebel forces in two. Rebels in the town of Dudyan were effectively surrounded. The most important village that ISIL captured was Hiwar Kallis, about one kilometer south of the Turkish border. During the ISIL advance, hundreds of rebel fighters retreated across the border into Turkey.[54][55][56][57][58] By the following day, the rebels re-secured five villages, including Hiwar Kallis, reconnecting the two rebel areas.[59][60][61]

Between 15 and 16 April, the back-and-forth fighting continued, with ISIL once again taking control of two villages, while the rebels took two others.[62][63][64] On 17 April, ISIL again captured the village of Tall Battal, west of al-Rai.[65]

Four days after ISIL regained most of the villages it had lost, the rebels launched a new assault and once again retook two villages.[66] However, ISIL retook them the following day,[67] as well as one other.[14]

Second ISIL counter-attack[edit]

Between 26 and 27 April, ISIL launched a new counter-attack, seizing five or six villages, including Dudyan. The rebels retreated to Azaz and Hiwar Kallis. ISIL's advance put them in a good position to strike both Azaz and Mare'.[68][69][70][71] Hours later, the rebels recaptured Dudyan.[72][73] Between 28 and 30 April, the rebels re-seized three other villages.[74][75][76]

Between 1 and 3 May, ISIL once again seized Dudiyan, as well as seven other villages,[77][78] although they lost Dudiyan and two others several hours later.[79] Dudiyan changed hands three more times between 5 and 7 May, eventually coming again under ISIL control.[80][81]

Between 7 and 13 May, back-and-forth fighting continued at four villages.[82][81][83][84] Between 15 and 17 May, three villages were once again under rebel control,[85][86] preventing a potential ISIL attack on Azaz.[87] However, ISIL took five villages on 19 May, including those they lost.[88][89]

Siege of Mare' and ISIL assault on Azaz[edit]

On 26 May, ISIL launched a new assault, quickly collapsing the rebel frontline. ISIL captured several new villages, came to within 5 kilometers of Azaz and reduced rebel territory to less than 20 villages. Later in the evening, ISIL made more advances and cut the rebel's supply line to Mare'.[90][11][91] 30–33 rebels and 11 ISIL fighters were killed, and another 10 rebels were captured. The surprise ISIL attack forced the evacuation of medical facilities and the fleeing of civilians from the area. An estimated 100,000–160,000 civilians were reported trapped in the rebel pocket on the border with Turkey.[92][93][94] On 27 May, ISIL continued to advance, taking more territory and reaching the eastern outskirts of Azaz.[95] However, a rebel counter-attack during the day, backed-up by U.S. airstrikes,[96] recaptured four villages.[97] In the evening, ISIL's attack on Mare' started.[98]

On 28 May, the Kurdish-led SDF secured Shaykh Issa, one of two towns in the Mare' pocket, to prevent its capture by ISIL forces.[99] Meanwhile, five ISIL attacks against Mare' were repelled.[100] At the beginning of the assault on Mare', two ISIL suicide bombers hit rebel positions, after which ISIL forces managed to enter the town from the east and street fighting started.[101][102] During the fighting, ISIL fighters surrounded the town's hospital for 10 hours[22] and attempted to storm it before being repelled.[103] At one point, a U.S. air-strike accidentally hit a rebel position killing seven rebels.[104]

On 29 May, the rebels recaptured the Scientific Research area near Azaz.[105] By this point, 61 rebels, 47 ISIL fighters and 29 civilians had been killed since the start of the ISIL offensive.[22] Meanwhile, the SDF closed the corridors it had opened earlier for civilians and wounded coming from Azaz and Mare' into Kurdish territory after rebel forces continued to attack the Kurdish-held part of Aleppo city.[106] 6,000 civilians fled to the Kurdish Afrin canton.[107] At the same time, the Sharia Court in Azaz issued an order that civilians would not be allowed to enter the town due to the possibility of ISIL infiltrators being among the refugees.[108] The SDF corridor was reopened after one day.[109]

By 30 May, of the nine villages they had initially lost,[90][95] the rebels managed to recapture five, including one of the two on the road between Azaz and Mare'.[110] On 31 May, the rebels, supported by Turkish artillery, launched an attack on the second village in an attempt to break the siege of Mare'. During the fighting, the rebels destroyed an ISIL car-bomb.[111] However, the rebel counter-attack eventually failed when an ISIL suicide bomber killed six rebels.[112] Meanwhile, ISIL forces were regrouping for a potential final push on Azaz.[113]

Early on 2 June, the U.S.-led Coalition reportedly parachuted a large weapons cache to the rebels surrounded in Mare'.[114] The following day, a new ISIL attack on Mare' was repelled with support from Coalition air-strikes and Turkish artillery fire. 30 ISIL and 17 rebel fighters were reportedly killed.[115]

On 8 June, the siege of Mare' was broken after rebel forces recaptured several villages on the road between Azaz and Mare'.[116][117][118][119] Later during the day, ISIL retreated from nine other towns and villages, although the rebels had not yet entered them to take control out of fear they would be ambushed.[120][12]

Aftermath[edit]

In the weeks that followed, back-and-forth fighting in the area continued, with the rebels taking seven villages, including al-Rai, before they were once again recaptured by ISIL.[121]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Anti-ISIL fight heats up on Turkey-Syria border". Hürriyet Daily News. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Turkish army 'ready' to shell YPG positions if it crosses Azaz-Jarablus line". Hurriyet Daily News. 31 March 2016.
  3. ^ "Al-Moutasem Brigade: An American Backed FSA Group in Northern Aleppo". The OSINT Blog. 1 April 2016. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  4. ^ a b "Syria war:Rebels take key northern town of al-Rai from IS".
  5. ^ a b "Report: ISIS abducts over 300 Syrian workers". Arutz Sheva.
  6. ^ a b "Islamic State lose Turkey supply route to Syrian rebels".
  7. ^ a b "Qasion News Agency".
  8. ^ a b "Syrian opposition re-seize over Toqli and Mregel villages".
  9. ^ a b "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  10. ^ "Agathocle deSyracuse". Twitter. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  11. ^ a b Chris Tomson (27 May 2016). "Rebel frontline collapses in northern Aleppo - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  12. ^ a b Tomson, Chris (8 June 2016). "Rebels advance rapidly amid full scale ISIS retreat in northern Aleppo - Map update". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  13. ^ "In Syria, militias armed by the Pentagon fight those armed by the CIA". Los Angeles Times. 27 March 2016.
  14. ^ a b "ISIS advances against Syrian rebels in Aleppo, loses ground to Kurds in Hasakah". ARA News. 24 April 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "Islamic State militants hit rebel strongholds on Syrian-Turkish border". ARA News. 2 April 2016.
  16. ^ a b c "ISIS expels Syrian Islamist rebels from strategic towns near Turkish border". ARA News. 21 March 2016.
  17. ^ "Scores of jihadis killed in clashes with western-backed SDF northern Syria". ARA News. 30 March 2016.
  18. ^ a b "Syrian rebels seize most of IS stronghold: monitor and rebel source". Reuters. 7 April 2016.
  19. ^ a b "Mare' is isolated in northern Aleppo and the residents flee to Afrin". Enab Baladi. 29 May 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Commander of the Victory Brigade: we will change the balance of forces in northern Aleppo". Baladi News. 1 June 2016.
  21. ^ "'Not just talk': New north Aleppo rebel alliance breaks Islamic State blockade". Syria:direct. 9 June 2016.
  22. ^ a b c "Thousands flee ISIS offensive in northern Syria". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  23. ^ "Free Syrian Army may move to western Syria: Turkish FM". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  24. ^ Chris Tomson (2 May 2016). "Turkish Army claims to kill 34 ISIS fighters in cross-border shelling". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  25. ^ Fiona Keating. "War on Isis: 55 Daesh fighters killed after barrage of heavy shelling in Aleppo". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  26. ^ "45 Daesh terrorists killed in Syria". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  27. ^ "Turkish Artillery Hits ISIS Positions In The Northern Countryside Of Aleppo". Qasion News Agency. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  28. ^ "Turkey shells IS positions inside Syria". Kuwait News Agency. 2 April 2016.
  29. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  30. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  31. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  32. ^ Jack. "تقدم للفصائل في قرى بريف حلب الشمالي واشتباكات بريف سلمية". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان.
  33. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  34. ^ "Syria rebels near ISIS stronghold in N. Aleppo". Now. 4 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  36. ^ "Qasion News Agency".
  37. ^ "Syrian rebels advance against Islamic State near Turkish border". Reuters. 5 April 2016.
  38. ^ "IS photo report on battle al Rai focus on US air support". Live UA Map. 7 April 2016.
  39. ^ Leith Fadel (10 April 2016). "ISIS begins massive offensive on the Aleppo-Turkey border". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  40. ^ "WorldOnAlert". Twitter. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  41. ^ Leith Fadel (10 April 2016). "ISIS captures 8 villages in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  42. ^ "ISIS Seize Over 8 Villages In Northern Aleppo". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  43. ^ khaled. "معارك متواصلة وقوات النظام تنفذ هجوماً معاكساً بريف حلب الجنوبي وتتقدم في عدة محاور". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  44. ^ "Opposition Forces Re-Seize Over Villages Northern Aleppo". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  45. ^ khaled. "22 ضربة جوية ترافق المعارك المتواصلة بالريف الشمالي لحلب وشهداء وجرحى في قصف جوي على مناطق فيها". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  46. ^ Reuters Editorial (11 April 2016). "Islamic State regains Syrian stronghold near Turkey border: monitor". Reuters. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  47. ^ khaled. "تنظيم "الدولة الإسلامية" يستعيد السيطرة الكاملة على أهم معاقله – بلدة الراعي بريف حلب الشمالي". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  48. ^ a b "Aleppo24". Twitter. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  49. ^ Chris Tomson (11 April 2016). "ISIS sweeps through a dozen rebel villages in northern Aleppo - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  50. ^ suliman. "الفصائل تعاود التقدم في ريف حلب الشمالي وقصف جوي على تادف". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  51. ^ Leith Fadel (12 April 2016). "Rebel defenses collapse in northern Aleppo as ISIS seizes 13 villages in 48 hours". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  52. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  53. ^ khaled. "الفصائل الإسلامية والمقاتلة تعاود التقدم بريف حلب الشمالي ومعارك مستمرة بالريف الجنوبي". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  54. ^ Chris Tomson (14 April 2016). "Rebels flee across Turkish border as ISIS snatches more villages - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  55. ^ "ISIS seizes Syria villages near Turkish border". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  56. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  57. ^ jack. "Aerial bombardment targets areas of Aleppo and continued clashes in Shekh Maqsoud". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  58. ^ "IS group makes gains in northern Syria from regime, rebels". Mail Online. 16 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  59. ^ Chris Tomson (15 April 2016). "Rebels attack ISIS in northern Aleppo and reopen border corridor - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  60. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  61. ^ jack. "Violent clashes near the Turkish borders". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  62. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  63. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  64. ^ "Syrian opposition rejects offer over transitional period". The Big Story. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  65. ^ edward. "تنظيم "الدولة الإسلامية" يتقدم مجدداً في ريف حلب الشمالي قرب الحدود مع تركيا". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  66. ^ "Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  67. ^ News Desk (22 April 2016). "ISIS captures two villages in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  68. ^ AP. "ISIL advances against rebels in north Syria". AP. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  69. ^ Leith Fadel (27 April 2016). "ISIS captures 5 villages in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  70. ^ khaled. "جيش الثوار يتهم الفصائل بـ "بيع الريف الشمالي لتنظيم داعش" وهدوء يسود مدينة حلب بعد يوم راح ضحيته 20 شهيداً على الأقل". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  71. ^ "ISIS Seize Over Six Villages In Northern Aleppo". Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  72. ^ Chris Tomson (27 April 2016). "Rebels strike back against ISIS in northern Aleppo and recapture Dudiyan". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  73. ^ Edward. "11 fighters at least from the rebel factions killed in the clashes in the northern countryside of Aleppo against The Syrian Democratic Forces and more bombing and raids on the city". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  74. ^ "Syrian opposition forces re-seize over Qasajek village in Aleppo countryside". Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  75. ^ "Opposition Seize Over Tal Shae'er … Dozens Of Airstrikes Hits Aleppo Countryside". Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  76. ^ suliman. "اشتباكات يشهدها ريفا حلب الشمالي والجنوبي وتجدد استهداف أحياء بالمدينة بالقذائف والقصف". المرصد السورى لحقوق الإنسان. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  77. ^ Chris Tomson (3 May 2016). "ISIS fights back in northern Aleppo and captures 7 villages from rebels". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  78. ^ "Qasion News Agency - ISIS Seize Over 5 Villages Northern Aleppo". Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  79. ^ "Qasion News Agency - Opposition announce the seizure of the whole areas captured by ISIS in Aleppo countryside". Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  80. ^ "archicivilians". Twitter. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  81. ^ a b "Qasion News Agency - Opposition forces recapture two villages in north of Aleppo and kill 20 fighters of ISIS". Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  82. ^ ABC News. "13 Members of Iran's Elite Force Killed in Syria". ABC News. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  83. ^ Chris Tomson (11 May 2016). "Syrian rebels recapture two villages from ISIS in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  84. ^ Leith Fadel (13 May 2016). "ISIS recaptures two villages in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  85. ^ "Qasion News Agency - Opposition forces recapture Tal-Hussin village and begin to break into Talalin". Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  86. ^ "Qasion News Agency - Opposition Seize Over Al-Boll And Defeats The Regime In Handarat". Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  87. ^ Chris Tomson (15 May 2016). "Rebels temporarily secure Azaz pocket from ISIS invasion - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  88. ^ Leith Fadel (19 May 2016). "ISIS seizes 5 villages along the Turkish border: Al-Amaq". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  89. ^ Chris Tomson (21 May 2016). "ISIS recaptures all villages lost to rebels in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  90. ^ a b Chris Tomson (27 May 2016). "Rebels cling to survival after ISIS advance in northern Aleppo - Map update". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  91. ^ "Qasion News Agency - ISIS advance in north of Aleppo and besieged the stronghold of opposition". Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  92. ^ John Davison (27 May 2016). "Islamic State advance near Turkish border, civilians trapped". Reuters UK. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  93. ^ Kareem Shaheen. "Medics and civilians flee northern Aleppo amid surprise Isis attack". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  94. ^ Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Islamic State advance near Turkish border, civilians trapped". news.trust.org. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  95. ^ a b "Peto Lucem". Twitter. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  96. ^ Leith Fadel (27 May 2016). "US airstrikes propel the FSA to recapture Tatiyah in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  97. ^ "Qasion News Agency - Opposition Groups Re-Capture Over 4 Villages In Aleppo Countryside". Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  98. ^ Leith Fadel (28 May 2016). "ISIS storms key rebel town in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  99. ^ Leith Fadel (28 May 2016). "US backed rebels capture village from Turkish backed rebels in northern Aleppo: map". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  100. ^ "Qasion News Agency - Opposition Regain Control In Seize Over Positions Northern Aleppo". Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  101. ^ "Syria rebels attacked by IS militants, government troops". Mail Online. 28 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  102. ^ Leith Fadel (29 May 2016). "Gulf backed rebels falling apart in northern Aleppo: map". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  103. ^ "Islamic State repelled on two fronts". Radio New Zealand. 29 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  104. ^ Leith Fadel (29 May 2016). "US airstrike accidentally kills Gulf backed rebels in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  105. ^ "Jaysh al-Thowwar control Sheikh Issa village and more than 6000 citizens are displaced to areas controlled by The Syrian Democratic Forces". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  106. ^ "YPG re-close the roads they opened in previous agreements with local factions and parties in the countryside of Aleppo". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  107. ^ "Thousands of Syrians Trapped as Islamic State Pushes to Border". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  108. ^ "Sharia Court in Azaz closes the crossings to Azaz in the face of the civilians". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  109. ^ Editor6. "شهداء معظمهم أطفال ومواطنات في قصف صاروخي على حي العامرية وقوات سوريا الديمقراطية تواصل محاولات تقدمها في ريف منبج". Retrieved 4 June 2016.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  110. ^ "Azaz_May_30 3 PM". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  111. ^ "Opposition attacks Kufr-Kalbin village with supporting by Turkish artillery - Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  112. ^ "Syria's civil war: Civilians flee Idlib bombardment". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  113. ^ Tomson, Chris (31 May 2016). "SouthFront: ISIS regroups for final push to capture Azaz pocket". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  114. ^ Fadel, Leith (3 June 2016). "US parachutes weapons to rebels surrounded by ISIS in northern Aleppo". Al-Masdar. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  115. ^ Tomson, Chris (3 June 2016). "SouthFront: ISIS repelled after major assault on Mare' city in northern Aleppo". Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  116. ^ Editor4. "الفصائل تنفذ هجوماً معاكساً قرب مدينة مارع وتستعيد السيطرة على بلدة وقرية وتقترب من فك الحصار عن المدينة". Retrieved 10 June 2016.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  117. ^ "Islamic State withdraws from northwest Syria frontlines". 8 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016 – via Reuters.
  118. ^ Tomson, Chris (8 June 2016). "ISIS pulls out of Azaz frontline as the SDF enters Manbij city - Map update". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  119. ^ "Opposition break the siege by ISIS on Mare'a - Qasion News Agency". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  120. ^ "The "Islamic State" retreat from more towns and villages in the northern countryside of Aleppo and 16 members from the "Islamic state" killed in the targeting by the warplanes of the International Coalition in the vicinity of Manbej, and the Syria Democratic Forces continue advancing in the area". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  121. ^ ISIS seizes seven border villages from weakened rebels in northern Aleppo

Coordinates: 36°28′58″N 37°11′42″E / 36.4828°N 37.1950°E / 36.4828; 37.1950