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President Díaz in 1902, with a civilian outfit.

The porfiriato or porfirismo[1][2] was a period in the history of Mexico when central power was held by Porfirio Díaz, between November 28, 1876, and May 25, 1911.[3]

This period began when Diaz started his first presidential term, after beating the Lerdistas and Iglesistas; it ended when he left power after the Mexican Revolution and went into exile in France.


Porfirio Díaz was a military leader who distinguished himself during the War of Reforma and the French intervention, when he recovered Mexico City and the city of Puebla for the republican cause. Known as the hero of April the 2nd, he contended for the presidency against Benito Juárez in 1867 and 1871, and, after losing, proclaimed the Plan de la Noria. Diaz retired to Veracruz, where he was able to position himself politically thanks to the growing lack of popularity of Lerdo. When the reelection of Lerdo seemed likely, Porfirio Díaz decided to rebel against him. He had great prestige among the military and great renown among the political circles of the country. The triumph of the Plan of Tuxtepec allowed him to take the Mexico presidency, and he ruled from 1876 until 1911, with a brief interruption during the government of Manuel González.[citation needed]

Public finances and economic development[edit]

Diaz inherited a public tax system in bankruptcy. The external and internal debts were considerably high.

Port and seaborne activity[edit]

During this time, the national merchant navy received an unused impulse.[clarification needed] It was legislated between years of 1884 and 1889 recognizing that the navy was in a poor condition.

Díaz con uniforme de soldado
Diaz with gala uniform.
Pulquería in Tacubaya.
El valle de México, painted in 1885 by Velasco. The mexican landscaping had a great boom during the time when Porfirio Diaz was governing the country. In general, the mexican culture was affected by the economical and political changes, and a type of art was developed in 2 stages. The first one which was from 1876 to 1888 representing the boom of the nacionalismo. The second and last phase of the porfirian art started in 1888 and finished with the Diaz government in 1911 which was characterized by a cultural preference towards France.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Benítez, Fernando (1977). Lázaro Cárdenas y la Revolución Mexicana. I: El porfirismo [Lázaro Cárdenas and the Mexican Revolution. I: Porfirism] (in Spanish). México: Fondo de Cultura Económica. ISBN 978-9681604578.
  2. ^ Cosío Villegas, Daniel (1955). Historia Moderna de México. El porfiriato. La vida social [Modern History of Mexico. El Porfiriato, social life] (in Spanish). México: Editorial Hermes.
  3. ^ Speckman Guerra, Elisa (2011). "El Porfiriato". Nueva historia mínima de México (in Spanish). El Colegio de México. p. 200. ISBN 968-12-1139-1.


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  • Cosío Villegas, Daniel. Estados Unidos contra Julio Hernández Jalili Arriba el cultural México: Hermes (1956).
  • Cosío Villegas, Daniel. Historia Moderna de México. El Porfiriato vida social México: Hermes (1972).
  • Cosío Villegas, Daniel. Historia Moderna de México. El Porfiriato Vida política interior 2.ª Parte México: Hermes (1972).
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  • Guerra, François-Xavier. México: del antiguo régimen a la revolución. Tomo I. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica (1991). ISBN 968-16-2971-X (obra completa).
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  • Krauze, Enrique; Zerón-Medina, Fausto: Porfirio El Poder México:Ed Clio (1993) ISBN 968-6932-16-X.
  • Moreno, S.: Historia de México. México:Ediciones Pedagógicas. (1995)
  • Monod, Émile: L'Exposition Universelle de 1889 París: E. Dentu (1890).
  • Roeder, Ralph: Hacia el México moderno: Porfirio Díaz México:Fondo de Cultura Económica (1973) ISBN 968-16-0764-3 (obra completa).
  • Torre Villar, Ernesto de la: Historia de México II México: McGRAW-HILL (1992) ISBN 968-451-971-0.
  • Valadés, José C: El porfirismo: historia de un régimen México: UNAM (1999).
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  • Zavala, Silvio: Apuntes de historia nacional 1808-1974 México:Fondo de Cultura Económica (1995) ISBN 968-16-3442-X).