Porsche 993 Turbo
|Also called||Porsche 911|
|Assembly||Germany: Stuttgart, Zuffenhausen|
|Designer||Tony Hatter (1991)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Layout||Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive/rear-engine, all-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.6 L–3.8 L air-cooled naturally aspirated/twin-turbocharged M64 SOHC flat-6|
|Wheelbase||89.45 in (2,272 mm)|
|Length||1994-95: 167.7 in (4,260 mm)|
1996-98: 167.7 in (4,260 mm)
The Porsche 993 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between January 1994 and early 1998 (model years 1995–1998 in the United States), replacing the 964. Its discontinuation marked the end of air-cooled 911 models.
The 993 was much improved over, and quite different from its predecessor. According to Porsche, every part of the car was designed from the ground up, including the engine and only 20% of its parts were carried over from the previous generation. Porsche refers to the 993 as "a significant advance, not just from a technical, but also a visual perspective." Porsche's engineers devised a new light-alloy subframe with coil and wishbone suspension (an all new multi-link system), putting behind the previous lift-off oversteer and making significant progress with the engine and handling, creating a more civilized car overall providing an improved driving experience. The 993 was also the first 911 to receive a six speed transmission.
The 993 had several variants, as its predecessors, varying in body style, engines, drivetrains and included equipment. Power was increased by the addition of the VarioRam system, which added additional power, particularly in the mid-ranges, and also resulted in a more throttle noise at higher revs; as a consequence, resulted in a 15% increase in power over its predecessor.
The external design of the Porsche 993, penned by English designer Tony Hatter, retained the basic body shell architecture of the 964 and other earlier 911 models, but with revised exterior panels, with much more flared wheel arches, a smoother front and rear bumper design, an enlarged retractable rear wing and teardrop mirrors.
A 993 was promoted globally via its role of the safety car during the 1994 Formula One season.
- 1 Overview
- 2 993 Variants
- 3 Engines
- 4 Performance
- 5 Production figures
- 6 Media
- 7 Successor
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
A major change was the implementation of all alloy multi-link rear suspension attached to an alloy sub frame, a completely new design derived from the 989, a four-door sedan which never went into production. The system later continued in the 993's successor, the 996, and required the widening of the rear wheel arches, which gave better stability. The new suspension improved handling, making it more direct, more stable, and helping to reduce the tendency to oversteer if the throttle was lifted during hard cornering, a trait of earlier 911s. It also reduced interior noise and improved ride quality.
The 993 was the first generation of the 911 to have a 6-speed manual transmission included as standard; its predecessors had 4 or 5-speed transmissions. In virtually every situation, it was possible to keep the engine at its best torque range above 4,500 rpm. The Carrera, Carrera S, Cabriolet and Targa models (rear wheel drive) were available with a "Tiptronic" 4-speed automatic transmission, first introduced in the 964. Beginning with model year 1995, Porsche offered the Tiptronic S with additional steering wheel mounted controls and refined software for smoother, quicker shifts. Since the 993's introduction, the Tiptronic is capable of recognizing climbs and descents. The Tiptronic equipped cars suffer as compared to the manual transmission equipped cars in both acceleration and also top speed, but the differences are not much notable. Tiptronic cars also suffered a 55 lb (25 kg) weight penalty.
The 993's optional all wheel drive system was refined over that of the 964. Porsche departed from the 964's setup consisting of three differentials and revised the system based on the layout from its 959 flagship, replacing the centre differential with a viscous coupling unit. In conjunction with the 993's redesigned suspension, this system improved handling characteristics in inclement weather and still retained the stability offered by all wheel drive without having to suffer as many compromises as the previous all-wheel-drive system. Its simpler layout also reduced weight, though the four wheel drive Carrera 4 weighs 111 lb (50 kg) more than its rear wheel drive counterpart (at 3,131 lb (1,420 kg) vs. 3,020 lb (1,370 kg)).
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Carrera coupé / cabriolet
The Carrera was available in rear and all-wheel drive versions. It was equipped with the naturally aspirated 3.6 liter M64 engine, further developed from the 964, and combined with a new dual-flow exhaust system now incorporating two catalytic converters. The 993 Carrera originally was equipped with orange turn indicators on the front, side and rear, black brake calipers, black Carrera logo on the back and 16-inch alloy wheels with black Porsche logos on the center wheelcaps. The 1994 coupé version had a curb weight of 1,370 kg (3,020 lb) (basic unladen weight of 1,270 kg (2,800 lb)). This model came with a ground clearance of 110 mm, except for the US version which had a ground clearance of 120 mm. This was further lowered with the M030 sport chassis option to 90 mm. The coupé is the stiffest, tightest, most solid, yet lightest of the 993 models.
The Cabriolet, introduced simultaneously alongside the coupé in April 1994 for the 1995 model year, featured a fully electrical and hand-stitched soft-top reinforced with metal sheets and an automatic wind-blocker. On the rear of the Cabriolet a small spoiler was mounted with the third braking light. The 993 Cabriolet was slightly heavier than the coupé variant and has a curb weight of 1,420 kg (3,131 lb). On average, a high percentage of the total Cabriolets produced ended up in the US. Both the coupé and convertible variants of the 993 were available with all-wheel drive.
Porsche also offered the 993 Carrera as an all-wheel drive version called the Carrera 4. In contrast with the 964, Porsche deleted the "2" from the rear-wheel drive "Carrera" name tag. However among enthusiasts, to differentiate between the rear-wheel and all-wheel drive variants of the Type 993 Carrera they were (and still are) commonly referred to as "C2" and "C4". The Carrera 4 has an ABD system (Automatic Braking Differential); it brakes the inner wheel when accelerating out of a corner. On the exterior, the Carrera 4 is visually distinguishable by clear front and side turn indicators and rear red turn indicators. The brake calipers are painted silver as is the 'Carrera 4' badge on the engine cover. The center wheel-caps carry the Carrera 4 logo instead of the Porsche crest. The Carrera 4 had a curb weight of 1,420 kg (3,131 lb), same as the standard Carrera cabriolet, and in both instances more than the Carrera coupé. Key feature on the 993 Carrera 4 is the weight saving in the all-wheel-drive system as compared to the 964, a lower maintenance viscous coupling unit that transfers 5-50% of power to the front wheels and changes the driving behavior of the car compared to the 993 Carrera. The 993 Carrera 4 all-wheel drive is suited to cope with all inclement weather conditions, which provides extra security in rain or snow, though on a dry circuit the C2 is the faster car, and the C4 is of course heavier than the C2. As one publication[who?] summarised it, "Some may like the all-wheel-drive system making the front end feel a tad more stable. Others will insist that a skittish nose and lively, ultra-informative steering are absolute necessities for proper Porsche driving. On a dry track and everything else being equal, the rear-drive car is probably the faster of the two." There was no Triptronic option available on the Carrera 4.
The options list for the 993 Carrera (and most other variants) offered many choices, including up to five different styles of wheels, various suspension set-ups, and three different seat styles (comfort, sport, racing). In addition, many upholstery options were offered and various sound systems including digital sound processing. Further, customers had the option of any colour other than standard shades. Even more, the Tequipment and Exclusive-Programs added further options and built to order almost any specific wishes of customers such as special consoles, fax-machines or even brightly coloured interior upholstery.
In contrast with most of the other variants, production of the Carrera coupé and Cabriolet ceased with the end of 1997 model year, except for a very few produced in a shortened 1998 model year.
The Targa version of the 993 was introduced in the 1996 model year and saw the debut of the so-called "greenhouse" system: a retractable glass roof, a design continued on the 996 and 997 Targa. The glass roof would retract underneath the rear window revealing a large opening. This system was a complete redesign, as previous Targa models had a removable roof section and a wide B-pillar functioning as a roll bar. The new glass roof design allowed the 993 Targa to retain the same side-on profile as the other 911 Carrera variants and finish without the inconvenience of storing the removed top of the old system. The Targa is based on the 993 Carrera cabriolet with the Targa glass roof replacing the fabric roof.
The Targa was equipped with distinctive 2-piece 17 in (430 mm) wheels, which could be ordered as an option on all cars not having standard 18 in (460 mm) wheels. Common problems with the Targa include heat in the cabin, creaking noises on rough roads and a very complicated and unreliable mechanism. In addition, the Targa roof is heavier than the coupé's roof, and that extra weight is at the top of the car, raising its center of gravity and decreasing handling capabilities.
Targa Production Numbers:
- 1996: 2,442 (US+Canada: 462)
- 1997: 1,843 (US+Canada: 567)
- 1998: 334 (US+Canada: 122)
- Total Production Run: 4,619
The 993 Turbo coupé was introduced in 1995. It featured a new twin-turbocharged engine displacing 3.6 liters and generating a maximum power output of 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp). Air-to-air intercoolers, electronic engine management, redesigned cylinder heads and other modified engine internals completed the new engine. The 993 Turbo was the first 911 Turbo with all wheel drive, taken from the 959 flagship model. The electronic engine management helped the Turbo to achieve fuel efficiency far superior to its predecessors. In connection with two catalytic converters and an on-board-diagnostics-system including four oxygen-sensors, the 993 Turbo was the cleanest sports car of its time. The Turbo's bodywork differs from the Carrera by widened rear wheel arches (approximately 6 cm), redesigned front and rear bumper moldings, and a fixed "whale tail" rear wing housing the intercoolers. New 18 in (460 mm) alloy wheels with hollow spokes were standard.
The 993 Turbo was one of the first production cars in the world to have OBDII diagnostics system (the 3.8-litre and GT versions didn't have that system, and the normally aspirated 993 variants didn't get it until 1996 model year). The successors of the 993 Turbo since have had water-cooled heads. The car also had brakes that were larger than those on the base Carrera model.
Throughout the production run of the Turbo, there were two distinct differences: the 1996 and the later model year cars. The 1997 and 1998 cars had the following differences from the 1996 cars:
- Stronger transmission input shafts (a known weakness due to the combination of immense power and AWD system).
- An ECU that was able to be flashed and modified (the 1996 model's ECU was not modifiable).
- With the addition of a Porsche child seat, the passenger airbag was cut off.
- Motion sensors for the alarm that were integrated into the map light above the rear view mirror.
- Standard wheel center caps that had "turbo" embedded on them (the 1996 version had Porsche crests).
During the second to the last year of production of the 993 (1997), Porsche offered the 993 Turbo S. Ultimately 183 cars were sold. The Turbo S is a high-specification Turbo including a power upgrade to 450 hp (DIN) (424 hp (SAE) for the American market). The inclusion of extras including carbon fibre decoration in the interior makes it different from the earlier lightweight, spartan 964 Turbo S. The 993 Turbo S is recognized by yellow brake calipers, a slightly larger rear wing, a quad-pipe exhaust system and air scoops behind the doors. This was the last of the air-cooled 911 Turbos. 12 cars were delivered to Australia.
Carrera 4S / Carrera S
The Carrera 4 S (1996) and the later rear-wheel-drive Carrera S (1997) shared the Turbo model's bodyshell, but housed the naturally aspirated engine in the rear. Both of the S models had slightly lowered suspension as compared to standard Carrera models. The all-wheel-drive 4S is heavier than the S due to the former's all wheel drive system, resulting in a curb weight of 1,427 kg (3,147 lb) for the C4S vs. 1,390 kg (3,064 lb) for the C2S. Due to this, the S has a quicker acceleration time and a slightly greater top speed than the 4S. Although a Carrera S Cabriolet was never officially offered by the factory, a small number (believed to be 5) were specially ordered through the Porsche Exclusive department in 1997 and sold as 1998 models by Beverly Hills Porsche in California and only 1 was ordered by a VIP client through Porsche Exclusive department for the European market. The wide bodywork is widely acclaimed for its rear looks. It creates more aerodynamic drag, leading to slightly lower top speeds compared to the narrower siblings (about 5 km/h), but the wider tyres result in excellent roadholding. The Carrera S is one of the most valuable 993 variant and achieves the highest sales price. Production of the Carrera S amounted to 1,752 examples for all of North America during the entire 993 series production run (in part because they were manufactured only for the 1997 model year, together with a very brief stub period later in 1997 denominated as 1998 models), though the special extremely limited run models such as the 993 RS, GT, and Turbo S are rarer and more expensive.
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The Carrera RS is a lightweight variant of the Carrera. It features a naturally aspirated 3.8 liter engine generating a maximum power output of 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp). The exterior is easily distinguishable from a normal Carrera by a large fixed rear wing, small front flaps and 3-piece 18 in (457 mm) aluminum wheels. The headlight washers were deleted for weight saving reasons. On the interior, the rear seats were removed, and special racing seats along with spartan door cards were installed. Sound proofing was also reduced to a minimum.
The Carrera RS Clubsport (also referred to as the RSR or RSCS in some countries) was a track-oriented iteration of the Carrera RS with relatively limited road usability. The Clubsport came equipped with a welded roll cage. Certain comfort features such as carpets, power windows, air conditioning and radio were deleted. Exterior wise, it sports a larger rear wing and a deeper chin spoiler than the standard RS.
The Carrera RS was produced in model years 1995 and 1996. It was street legal in European and many other countries around the world, but was not approved for export to the United States. As with the relatively low production-volume RS variants of earlier 911 models, the tradition of tuning a base Carrera into an RS clone would be common as an enthusiast's attempt to own something that otherwise is unobtainable due to the rarity and consequent high market value of the RS. The practice, often using authentic Porsche-sourced RS parts, is perhaps more common amongst U.S. owners, since the RS and the RS Clubsport were never certified for sale in that market.
The GT2 was the racing version of the 993 Turbo made to compete in the FIA GT2 class racing. By the mid 1990s, most of the sanctioning bodies of road racing had placed severe limitations, if not outright bans on the use all-wheel-drive systems, due in part to Audi's earlier success in campaigning their various Quattro cars in touring car races around the globe, to Porsche's 959 and its racing version the 961, and in part to the Nissan Skyline. It was in this atmosphere that in order to take their turbo-engined 993 racing, Porsche created the rear drive GT. The deletion of the all-wheel-drive drivetrain also brought with it the benefit of significant weight savings to the competition car. To qualify the car for racing, a limited number of street legal variants were created for homologation purposes, which are now highly prized and valued by collectors. The interior treatment of the GT2 is similar to that of the sibling Carrera RS. Exterior wise, the fenders of the Turbo have been cut back and replaced with bolt-on plastic pieces in order to accommodate large racing tires and to help ease the repairs of damage to the fenders that are an often reoccurring event in auto racing.
Until 1997, the street legal version of GT2 racecar, named GT had almost the same engine as the Turbo, but operated with higher boost pressure and generated a maximum power output of 430 PS (316 kW; 424 hp). In 1998 model year, a twin ignition system was added; power was raised to 450 PS (331 kW; 444 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 586 N⋅m (432 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 3,500 rpm.
The racing variants have different engine set-ups depending on the applicable racing series. By 1996, the factory-quoted power rating was 456 PS (335 kW; 450 hp) at 5,700 rpm and torque of 670 N⋅m (494 lb⋅ft) of torque at 5,000 rpm. Power output came as high as 600 PS (441 kW; 592 hp) in an "Evo" version designed for the GT1-series, which was ultimately replaced by the mid-engine 911 GT1.
Additionally, the rear deck lid of the street legal version of the GT2 will also sport "911 GT" instead of "911 GT2".
The Speedster model, was a variant of the 993, with a lowered roof, and a redesigned interior.
In contrast to the G-model and the 964, Porsche never officially offered the 993 in a Speedster body style. However, two were built by the factory: a dark green Speedster equipped with Tiptronic S and 17-inch (432 mm) wheels for Ferdinand Alexander Porsche (for his 60th anniversary) in 1995 and another wide-body, silver Speedster with manual transmission and 18-inch (457 mm) wheels for American TV star Jerry Seinfeld in 1998. The Seinfeld speedster was originally delivered as either a cabriolet or targa model and later sent back to the factory "Exclusive" department to be "rebuilt" as a speedster. Additionally, a few 993 convertibles were converted to the Speedster body style by aftermarket coach builders.
After the 3.3 liter G-model Turbo convertible (1987–89), Porsche never officially offered an air-cooled Turbo convertible again. However, in 1995 a small number (believed to be 14) 993 Turbo Cabriolets were sold before the introduction of the 993 Turbo coupé. They featured the 360 PS (265 kW; 355 hp) single-turbo engine of the 964 Turbo 3.6, a 5-speed manual transmission, rear-wheel drive and the rear wing of the 964 Turbo 3.6. This cost a premium of DM 89,500 (or plus 62%) over the standard 993 Cabriolet's price.
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There were a few engine options available for the 993.
The 993 Carrera is powered by an air-cooled Porsche flat-6 "boxer" engine using a Single Overhead Cam (SOHC) valvetrain. Porsche had begun employing the earliest evolution of this overhead cam engine in the 1963 Porsche 901, which had a displacement of 2.0-litres and generated a maximum power output of 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp). More specifically, the engine used in the 993 is the final factory refinement of the Porsche-designated "M64" boxer engine. The standard, naturally aspirated 3.6-litre M64/05(06) engine is a refined version of the M64/01 installed in the 964 Carrera. The M64/05(06) generated a maximum power output of 272 PS (200 kW; 268 hp) through model year 1995.
In 1995, Porsche switched to the VarioRam -equipped M64/21(22) engine. The VarioRam adjusts the length of the air intake ducts in line with the engine RPMs and the speed of the car, as a result, power output is increased to 286 PS (210 kW; 282 hp).
The 993 Carrera RS utilised a more powerful version of the M64 displacing 3.8-litres and having a maximum power output of 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp). The 3.8-litre engine was also offered as a build-to-order option throughout the 993's lifespan.
The 3.6-litre twin-turbocharged M64/60 engine uses two KKK K16 turbochargers and generates a maximum power output of 408 PS (300 kW; 402 hp). More powerful versions [430–450 PS (316–331 kW; 424–444 hp)] were available as build-to-order options on the Turbo and as standard equipment in the Turbo S, and in the GT. Depending on the country, Porsche offered 430 and 450 PS kits for the Turbo during its production run.
|Performance data: Porsche 993|
|Model (with model year and source)||0–97 km/h
|1/4 mile||1 km||Top speed|
|-||5.6 s||-||-||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
(Auto Motor Sport 1993)
|-||5.3 s||12.4 s||21.1 s||-||24.7 s||267 km/h (166 mph)|
|Carrera Tiptronic (1994)
|-||6.6 s||-||-||-||-||265 km/h (165 mph)|
|Carrera RS 3.8 (1995)
(Sport Auto 11/94)
|-||5.2 s||11.4 s||18.7 s||-||-||287 km/h (178 mph)|
|Carrera (US) (1995)
|5.2 s||-||13.3 s||-||13.8 at 102 mph (164.2 km/h)||-||est 168 mph (270 km/h)|
|Carrera (US) (1995)
|4.7 s||-||12.1 s||-||13.4 at 104 mph (167.4 km/h)||-||162 mph (261 km/h)|
|Carrera 4 (US) (1995)
(Road & Track Jan/95)
|5.7 s||-||14.0 s||-||14.1 at 100.5 mph (161.7 km/h)||-||est 168 mph (270 km/h)|
|-||5.6 s||12.3 s||-||-||25,1 s||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera Tiptronic (1996/1997)
|-||6.4 s||13.8 s||-||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera RS 3.8 (1996)
(performance car Mar/96)
|4.7 s||-||11.2 s||-||13.2 at 109 mph (175.4 km/h)||-||-|
(Auto Motor Sport 20/95)
|5.5||5.5 s||-||21.3 s||-||-||172 mph (277 km/h)|
|Carrera 4S (1996)
(Sport Auto 12/95)
|-||5.5 s||13.2 s||23.0 s||-||-||290 km/h (180 mph)|
|Targa Tiptronic (1996)
(Sport Auto Dec/95)
|-||7.1 s||15.4 s||27.3 s||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|Carrera 4S (US) (1997)
(Car and Driver Jun/96)
|4.9 s||-||12.8 s||-||13.5 at 102 mph (164.2 km/h)||-||161 mph (259 km/h)|
|Carrera S (1997)
(Sport Auto 02/97)
|5.2 s||5.7 s||13.3 s||22.7 s||-||-||270 km/h (168 mph)|
|-||4.5 s||-||-||-||23.0 s||290 km/h (180 mph)|
(Auto Motor Sport 1995)
|-||4.3 s||9.5 s||15.1 s||-||22.4 s||291 km/h (181 mph)|
(Motor Trend Jun/95)
|3.7 s||-||9.1 s||-||12.1 at 113.1 mph (182 km/h)||-||-|
(Autocar 31 May 95)
|3.7 s||-||9.2 s||-||12.3 at 114 mph (183.5 km/h)||22.1 s||180+ mph (290+ km/h)|
|3.9 s||-||9.9 s||-||12.5 at 112.5 mph (181.1 km/h)||-||est 180 mph (290 km/h)|
(Car and Driver Jul/95)
|3.7 s||-||9.4 s||-||12.3 at 114 mph (183.5 km/h)||-||176 mph (283 km/h)|
|Turbo S (1997)
(Car and Driver Jul/97)
|3.7 s||-||8.8 s||-||12.2 at 114 mph (183.5 km/h)||-||188 mph (303 km/h)|
|Turbo S (with performance package)
(Performance Car May/98)
|3.7 s||-||8.56 s||-||12.1 at 118 mph (190 km/h)||-||est 187 mph (301 km/h)|
|Turbo (1996) (with factory upgrades)
(Auto Motor Sport 25/1996)
|-||3.8 s||8.5 s||13.5 s||-||21.8 s||300 km/h (186 mph)|
(Auto Motor Sport 1995)
|-||3.9 s||8.4 s||13.3 s||-||21.7 s||296 km/h (184 mph)|
|Model||Total||Subseries total||Grand total|
|993 Carrera (272 PS)||14,541||46,923||68,029|
|993 Carrera Cabriolet (272 PS)||7,730|
|993 Carrera (285 PS)||8,586|
|993 Carrera Cabriolet (285 PS)||7,769|
|993 Targa (285 PS)||4,583|
|993 Carrera S (285 PS)||3,714|
|993 Carrera 4 (272 PS)||2,884||14,114|
|993 Carrera 4 Cabriolet (272 PS)||1,284|
|993 Carrera 4 (285 PS)||1,860|
|993 Carrera 4 Cabriolet (285 PS)||1,138|
|993 Carrera 4S (285 PS)||6,948|
|993 Turbo 3.6||5,978||5,978|
|993 Carrera RS||1,014||1,014|
The 993 generation of the 911 is often referred to as the best and most desirable of the 911 series, not only because of its beauty, but also because of its great performance, even by modern standards. The 993 is quoted as "the last complete 'modern classic'"; "the 993 was and forever will be that last fresh breath of air that Porsche gave the world; elegance and muscle all in one package." The book "Porsche 993 - Essential Companion" refers to the 993 as the "King of Porsche," and it is generally acknowledged as "The purists' Holy Grail."
In its April 12, 2017 article entitled "The Porsche 993 Actually Lives up to the Hype," Road & Track writes that the 993 is "something truly special," with "a combination of old-school feel and modern usability that isn't found in many other cars," with "great steering, great brakes, and a wonderfully composed package." It also states that "The 993 is also beautifully built -- it's a relic from the time when Porsche didn't cut corners anywhere."
The 993 was replaced by the 996. This represented a dramatic change for the 911. As many enthusiasts agree, "the 993 is one of the sweetest spots in the 911's half-century of existence," and while "more modern versions might be more dynamically capable, they're bloated behemoths in comparison to the lean 993."
- Mircea Panait. "This Porsche 993 GT2 is the Last of the Great Air-Cooled Turbocharged 911s – Photo Gallery". autoevolution.
- AutoTraderClassics.com — Article Finding Porsche's best road car — Porsche 911S vs 993.
- http://www.porsche.com/international/accessoriesand service/classic/models/999/993/.
- http://www.porsche.com/usa/accessoriesand services/classic/models/993/993/
- 993 Buying Guide, www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html.
- Excellence, "1995 911 Carrera Coupe (993), www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs.
- Excellence, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs.
- Porsche 911 993 (1994 - 1998), www.stuttcars.com/porsche-models/911/993; Porsche 911 Buyers' Guide: Classic to Modern, www.ferdinandmagazine.com/porsche-buyers-guides/porsche-911-buyers-guide.
- 993 Buying Guide, http://www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html.
- '95-'98 Porsche 993 - A Guide to the Last Air-Cooled 911," Id.
- 993 Buying Guide, www.jackals-forge.com/lotus/993/993_buy_guide.html; Porsche 911 993 (1993 - 1998), www.stuttcars.com/porsche-models/911/993.
- Excellence Magazine, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs/323 (C2S) and 334 (C4S)
- Excellence Magazine, www.excellence-mag.com/resources/specs/323 and 334.
- RM Sotheby's, https://rmsothebys.com/en/auctions/PA18/Paris/lots/r0064-1998-porsche-911-carrera-s-cabriolet/623408
- "Porsche 911 Evolution: Porsche 993". 911evolution.com. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03.
- Porsche Classic Models: Porsche 993 Turbo, http://www.porsche.com/usa/accessoriesandservices/classic/models/993/993-turbo/.
- All figures from: Eberhard Kittler: Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol. 6. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02052-1, p. 361.
- "Classic Driver," August 23, 2013; "The Sports Car Guys," June 5, 2013; "K-Roll's Porsche 911 Generational Comparison: 993 vs 964," July 29, 2014.
- "'95-'98 Porsche 993 - A Guide to the Last Air-Cooled 911," www.superstreetonline.com/features/1511-95-98-porsche-993-a-guide-to-the-last-air-cooled...
- Road & Track, April 12, 2017.
- Bongers, Marc (2004). Porsche — Serienfahrzeuge und Sportwagen seit 1948 (first edition). Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02388-1
- Frère, Paul (2002). Die Porsche 911 Story (revised and last edition). Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02225-7
- Streather, Adrian (2005). Porsche 993: The Essential Companion (first edition). Veloce Publishing. ISBN 1-904788-94-7
- Porsche, Christophorus, Issue no. 5 (September) of 1993, pages 11 ff. ISSN 0412-3417
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Porsche 993.|
- Official website of Porsche
- 993 Owners and information
- Information on and about Porsche 993
- Porsche 911 Carrera 2 (Generation 993) Exterior and Interior in Full HD 3D YouTube
|Roadster & sports cars||912||912E||924||Boxster (986)|
|911||911 / 930||911 (964)||911 (993)||911 (996)|