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Aesthetics

Aesthetics, or esthetics (/ɛsˈθɛtɪks, s-, æs-/) : is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste, with the creation or appreciation of beauty : a particular theory or conception of beauty or art : a particular taste for or approach to what is pleasing to the senses and especially sight.

In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.

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The Love of Zero, a 1927 film by Robert Florey.
Avant-garde (French pronunciation: ​[avɑ̃ɡaʁd] in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard".[1] The adjective form is used in English, to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

Avant-garde represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The notion of the existence of the avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. However, this is not true in the case of music as many pieces are still being released which are generally considered avant-garde in popular culture.[2] Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada to the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E writers in the 1980s.[3]

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Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788–September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher known for his atheistic pessimism and philosophical clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the fundamental question of whether reason alone can unlock answers about the world. Schopenhauer's most influential work, The World as Will and Representation, emphasized the role of man's basic motivation, which Schopenhauer called will. Schopenhauer's analysis of will led him to the conclusion that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fulfilled. Consequently, Schopenhauer favored a lifestyle of negating human desires, similar to the teachings of Buddhism and Vedanta.

Schopenhauer's metaphysical analysis of will, his views on human motivation and desire, and his aphoristic writing style influenced many well-known thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, and Karl Kraus.

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Baumgarten appropriated the word aesthetics, which had always meant sensation, to mean taste or "sense" of beauty. In so doing, he gave the word a different significance, thereby inventing its modern usage. The word had been used differently since the time of the ancient Greeks to mean the ability to receive stimulation from one or more of the five bodily senses.

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Requested articles: aesthetic experience · aesthetic judgment · aesthetic properties · philosophy of art (currently a redirect) · artistic form · artistic style (currently a redirect) · artistic value · nature of art · ontology of art · concrete object (currently a redirect) · Rapture (aesthetics) · reception (currently a disambiguation page with no aesthetics)

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  1. ^ "Avant-garde definitions". Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
  2. ^ "avant-garde tag – Music at Last.fm". Last.fm Ltd. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  3. ^ UBU website – UBU Web List of artists from Dada to the present day aligning themselves with the avant-garde
  4. ^ Clement Greenberg, “On Modernist Painting”.

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