Getúlio Dornelles Vargas
was a Brazilian lawyer and politician, who served as President of Brazil
during two periods: the first was from 1930–1945, when he served as interim president from 1930–1934, President from 1934–1937, and dictator from 1937–1945. After being overthrown in a 1945 coup, Vargas returned to power as the democratically elected president in 1951, serving until his suicide in 1954. Vargas led Brazil for 18 years, the longest of any President, and second in Brazilian history only to Emperor Pedro II
among heads of state. He favored nationalism
, social welfare
– for the latter, Vargas won the nickname "The Father of the Poor". Vargas is one of a number of populists who arose during the 1930s in Latin America
, including Lazaro Cardenas
and Juan Peron
who promoted nationalism and pursued social reform. He was a proponent of workers' rights as well as a staunch anti-communist. Vargas was brought to power by political outsiders and the rank and file of the Armed Forces in the Revolution of 1930
, a reaction to his loss in elections earlier that year. His ascent marked the end of the Brazilian Old Republic
and São Paulo-Minas alliance dominated coffee with milk politics. He successfully influenced the outcome of the Brazilian presidential election of 1934, and used fears of a Communist uprising to institute an authoritarian corporatist
regime in 1937 known as the New State
, modeled off of Mussolini
's Italy and Salazar
's Portugal. Vargas went on to appease and eventually dominate his supporters, and pushed his political agenda as he built a propaganda machine around his figure.
Cyrenaican rebel leader Omar Mukhtar (the man in robes with a chain on his left arm) after his arrest by Italian armed forces in 1931 at the end of the Pacification of Libya, an Italian colonial campaign of repressing indigeneous Libyan resistance to Italian colonial rule that occurred from 1928 to 1932. Fascist Italy authorized the use of concentration camps, deliberate targetting of civilians, and ethnic cleansing, resulting in mass deaths of the population of the region of Cyrenaica in Libya. Fascist Italy's ethnic cleansing in Libya was aimed at allowing Italian settlers to take the territories and property formerly held by indigenous Libyans.