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Portal:Luxembourg

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Introduction

Flag of Luxembourg.svg

Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (About this soundlisten); Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuə̯ɕ] (About this soundlisten); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union (together with Brussels and Strasbourg) and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German). The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.

With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.

Selected general articles

  • Logo RTL Luxembourg.png

    RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg is the main television channel in Luxembourg, broadcasting in Luxembourgish. Read more...
  • Luxembourg airport


    Luxembourg Airport at Findel, some 6 km to the north of the city, is Luxembourg's only commercial airport. Thanks to its long runway (4,000 m), even the largest types of aircraft are able to use its facilities.

    Luxair, Luxembourg's international airline, and Cargolux, a cargo-only airline, operate out of the airport. In 2008, the airport ranked as Europe's 5th largest and the world's 23rd by cargo tonnage. Read more...
  • EU-Luxembourg.svg

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Luxembourg enjoy the same rights as non-LGBT people. The country is tolerant of homosexuality, and it is largely respected and accepted. Partnerships, which grant many of the benefits of marriage, are recognised. In June 2014, the Luxembourgish Parliament passed a law enabling same-sex marriage and adoption rights, which took effect on 1 January 2015. A large majority of Luxembourgers support same-sex marriage. Additionally, discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and "change of sex" is outlawed. Read more...
  • The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg constitutes the House of Luxembourg-Nassau, headed by the sovereign Grand Duke, and in which the throne of the grand duchy is hereditary. It consists of heirs and descendants of the House of Nassau-Weilburg, whose sovereign territories passed cognatically from the Nassau dynasty to a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon-Parma, itself a branch of the Spanish Royal House which is agnatically a cadet branch of the House of Capet that originated in France. This is descended from the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Read more...
  • The Belgium–Luxembourg Economic Union (Dutch: Belgisch-Luxemburgse Economische Unie, French: Union économique belgo-luxembourgeoise, Luxembourgish: Belsch-Lëtzebuerger Wirtschaftsunioun), abbreviated to BLEU or UEBL, is an economic union between Belgium and Luxembourg, two countries in the Benelux Union.

    BLEU was created by a treaty, signed on 25 July 1921, despite a referendum against such a proposal, between Belgium and Luxembourg, and came into effect upon ratification by the Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies on 22 December 1922. Under the terms of the treaty, the economic frontier was lifted and the Belgian franc and Luxembourg franc were set at a fixed parity (though revised in 1935 and 1944) establishing a monetary union, which existed up until the introduction of the Euro. The original treaty lasted for fifty years, expiring in 1972; this was extended for ten years in 1982 and again in 1992. On 18 December 2002, the two countries and the three regions of Belgium signed a new convention. Read more...
  • The practice of Protestantism in Luxembourg is divided across several different churches and denominations. The largest Protestant churches in the Grand Duchy are the Protestant Church of Luxembourg, Church of England, and Protestant Church in the Netherlands. Altogether, Protestantism is the largest minority religion in Luxembourg (after the majority Roman Catholic Church), with estimates of adherents ranging from 15,000 to 18,000 (max 3,5% of the population). Read more...
  • The President of the Council of State is the leader of Luxembourg's Council of State.

    He or she is appointed by the Grand Duke, along with two Vice Presidents, and the appointment lasts for one year (although it can be renewed). The President of the Council of State must be either a member of the Council of State or the Grand Duke himself. However, to date, the latter option has never been taken, and it has become convention that the Grand Duke cannot be the President. Read more...
  • Nico Klopp: Stretch of the Moselle at Greiveldange with Stadtbredimus (1930)

    Luxembourg art can be traced back to Roman times, especially as depicted in statues found across the country and in the huge mosaic from Vichten. Over the centuries, Luxembourg's churches and castles have housed a number of cultural artefacts but these are nearly all ascribed to foreign artists. The first examples of art with a national flavour are paintings and maps of the City of Luxembourg and its fortifications from the end of the 16th until the beginning of the 19th century, although these too were mostly created by foreign artists. Real interest in art among the country's own citizens began in the 19th century with paintings of Luxembourg and the surroundings after the country became a grand duchy in 1815. This was followed by interest in Impressionism and Expressionism in the early 20th century, the richest period in Luxembourg painting, while Abstraction became the focus of art after the Second World War. Today there are a number of successful contemporary artists, some of whom have gained wide international recognition. Read more...
  • LUXAIRPORT.gif

    Luxembourg Airport (IATA: LUX, ICAO: ELLX) is the main airport in Luxembourg. Previously called Luxembourg Findel Airport due to its location at Findel, it is Luxembourg's only international airport and is the only airport in the country with a paved runway. It is located 3.25 NM (6.02 km; 3.74 mi) east of Luxembourg City. In 2018, it handled 4.04 million passengers. By cargo tonnage, LUX/ELLX ranked as Europe's fifth-busiest and the world's 28th-busiest in 2010. Luxair, Luxembourg's international airline, and cargo airline Cargolux have their head offices on the airport property. Read more...
  • This is a list of railway stations in Luxembourg. Luxembourg has a well-developed railway network, due in part to its heavily-industrialised iron- and steel-producing Red Lands, which are particularly well served. As a result, most towns with over a thousand inhabitants are served by at least one station (and, in the case of Luxembourg City and Dudelange, four).

    Read more...
  • This is a list of films produced or filmed in Luxembourg, including numerous films made for television in the country. Many of them may have been co-produced with Germany, France or Belgium. Read more...
  • Bandera cruz de Borgoña 2.svg

    Spanish Netherlands (Spanish: Países Bajos Españoles; Dutch: Spaanse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas espagnols, German: Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels.

    The Imperial fiefs of the former Burgundian Netherlands had been inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg from the extinct House of Valois-Burgundy upon the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482. The Seventeen Provinces formed the core of the Habsburg Netherlands which passed to the Spanish Habsburgs upon the abdication of Emperor Charles V in 1556. When part of the Netherlands separated to form the autonomous Dutch Republic in 1581, the remainder of the area stayed under Spanish rule until the War of the Spanish Succession. Read more...
  • The station's facade at Place de la Gare is in the traditional Moselle Baroque Revival style.

    Luxembourg railway station (Luxembourgish: Gare Lëtzebuerg, French: Gare de Luxembourg, German: Bahnhof Luxemburg) is the main railway station serving Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. It is operated by Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois, the state-owned railway company.

    80,000 passengers use this station every day. Read more...
  • The area where Luxembourgish (pale violet) and other dialects of Moselle Franconian (medium purple) are spoken. The internal isogloss for words meaning "of", i.e. op and of is also shown (Standard German: auf).

    Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡɪʃ/ LUK-səm-bur-gish), Letzeburgesch (/ˌlɛts(ə)bɜːrˈɡɛʃ/ LETS(-ə)-bur-GESH or /ˈlɛts(ə)bɜːrɡɪʃ/ LETS(-ə)-bur-gish) (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch), or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide.

    A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages. The status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Read more...
  • The President of the Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourgish: Chamberpresident, French: Président de la Chambre des Députés, German: Präsident der Abgeordnetenkammer) is the presiding officer in Luxembourg's unicameral national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies.

    Note that, during recess, the chamber does not have a president. However, for continuity purposes, unless the president changes between one parliamentary session and another, the presidency is treated as though it is held continuously. Read more...
  • Luxembourg has an extensive welfare system. It comprises a social security, health, and pension funds. The labor market is highly regulated, and Luxembourg is a corporatist welfare state. Enrollment is mandatory in one of the welfare schemes for any employed person. Luxembourg's social security system is the Centre Commun de la Securite Sociale (CCSS). Both employees and employers make contributions to the fund at a rate of 25% of total salary, which cannot eclipse more than five times the minimum wage. Social spending accounts for 21.8% of GDP. Read more...

  • The flag of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerger Fändel, German: Flagge Luxemburgs, French: Drapeau du Luxembourg) consists of three horizontal stripes, red, white and blue, and can be in 1:2 or 3:5 ratio. It was first used between 1845 and 1848 and officially adopted on 1993. It is informally called in the country, «rout, wäiß, blo,» (lit. red, white, sky blue).

    Luxembourg had no flag until 1830, when patriots were urged to display the national colours. The flag was defined as a horizontal tricolour of red, white, and blue in 1848, but it was not officially adopted until 1993. The tricolour flag is almost identical to Flag of the Netherlands, except that it is longer and its blue stripe and red stripe are a lighter shade. The red, white, and blue colours were derived from the coat of arms of the House of Luxembourg. Read more...
  • Cinémathèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

    The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of 576,000 people. However, many films have been made in the country, both by native filmmakers and by people from other countries.

    In 1993, Dammentour by Paul Scheuer (AFO-Productions) and Hochzäitsnuecht (Paul Cruchten) won awards at the Max Ophüls Festival in Saarbrücken. Read more...
  • Did you know...

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