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Portal:Russia

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Introduction

Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg

Russia (Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.80 million people , including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east.

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A T-34 Model 1943
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank produced from 1940 to 1958. It was widely regarded as the world's best tank when the Soviet Union entered the Second World War, and although its armour and armament were surpassed by later WWII tanks, it is credited as the war's most effective, efficient and influential design. First produced at the KhPZ factory in Kharkov (Kharkiv, Ukraine), it was the mainstay of Soviet armoured forces throughout World War II, and widely exported afterwards. It was the most-produced tank of the war, and the second most-produced tank of all time, after its successor, the T-54/55 series. The T-34 was still in service with twenty-seven countries as late as 1996.

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St Isaac's Square
Credit: Detroit Publishing Co. (1905 catalogue)

A photochrom of Saint Isaac's Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia from the 1890s, as seen from the dome of Saint Isaac's Cathedral towards Mariinsky Palace. Behind the palace, the capital of the Russian Empire is seen all the way to the Trinity Cathedral. The square is dominated by the equestrian Monument to Nicholas I.

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Sviatoslav depicted in artwork by Ivan Akimov

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Baked piroshki stuffed with meat, mushroom, rice and onions

Pirozhki (Russian: пирожки, plural form of pirozhok, literally a "small pie"), (Ukrainian: пиріжки, Pyrizhky) also transliterated as piroshki (singular piroshok) are a Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian puff pastry which consists of individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings. The stress in pirozhki is properly placed on the last syllable: [pʲɪrɐʂˈkʲi]. Pirozhok (пирожок, singular) is the diminutive form of the Russian pirog (пирог), which refers to a full-sized pie. (Unless the full-sized pie is called by the diminutive name for purely stylistic reasons.) Pirozhki are not to be confused with the pierogi/varenyky of Ukraine, Poland, and Slovakia (Eastern Europe/Central Europe). A common variety of pirozhki are baked stuffed buns made from yeast dough and often glazed with egg to produce the common golden color. They commonly contain meat (typically beef) or a vegetable filling (mashed potatoes, mushrooms, onions and egg, or cabbage). Pirozhki could also be stuffed with fish (e.g., salmon) or with an oatmeal filling mixed with meat or giblets. Sweet-based fillings could include stewed or fresh fruit (apples, cherries, apricots, chopped lemon, etc.), jam, quark or cottage cheese. The buns may be plain and stuffed with the filling, or else be made in a free-form style with strips of dough decoratively encasing the filling.

Variations on the use of yeast dough can be American style pie crust short dough or multilayered pastry dough similar to that found in croissants. Read more...

Featured biography

Bagramyan in 1938
Hovhannes Bagramyan was a Soviet Armenian military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union. During World War II, Bagramyan became the first non-Slavic military officer to become a commander of a Front. Bagramyan's previous experience in military planning as a chief of staff officer allowed him to distinguish himself as a capable commander during the war in the early stages of the Soviet counter-offensives against Nazi Germany. He was given his first command of a unit in 1942 and in November 1943, received his most prestigious command as the head of the First Baltic Front. As head of the Baltic Front, he participated in the offensives which moved westwards to push German forces out of the occupied Soviet Union and the recapturing of the Baltic republics. After the war, he served as a deputy member of the Supreme Soviets of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and was a regular attendant of the Party Congresses. In 1952, he became a candidate for entry into the Central Committee and, in 1961, was inducted as a full member. For his contributions during the war, he was widely regarded as a national hero in the Soviet Union, and continues to hold such esteemed status among many Armenians today.

In the news

12 July 2019 – Russia–Turkey relations
Turkey receives its first shipment of the S-400 missile system from Russia, defying U.S. and NATO calls to cancel the deal. (BBC)
6 July 2019 – Syrian Civil War
The SNHR says at least 544 civilians (including 130 children) have been killed, and another 2,117 people injured since a Russian-led Syrian government assault on the last rebel bastion in northwestern Syria began two months prior. (Al Jazeera) (Reuters)
2 July 2019 –
A fire on the Russian Navy's Losharik submarine kills 14 crew members while the vessel conducts tests in Russian territorial waters. (Sky News) (RFERL)
At least 18 people have died and more than a dozen are still missing in devastating floods that swept southeastern Siberia, Russia. (The Japan Times)
27 June 2019 –
Angara Airlines Flight 200 crashes on landing at Nizhneangarsk Airport, Far East Russia, killing two of the 47 people on board. (Aviation Safety Network)
26 June 2019 – Germany–United States relations
U.S. President Donald Trump states that Germany is "delinquent" on NATO defense, saying, "So they are giving Russia billions of dollars yet we are supposed to protect Germany and Germany is delinquent! Okay?" (Al Arabiya)

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Boris Yeltsin
We don't appreciate what we have until it's gone. Freedom is like that. It's like air. When you have it, you don't notice it.

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