President of Guatemala
|President of the|
Republic of Guatemala
Presidente de la República de Guatemala
|Office of the President of Guatemala|
National Security Council
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
(alternative formal, diplomatic outside of Guatemala)
|Appointer||Supreme Electoral Court|
|Term length||Four years|
|Constituting instrument||Guatemala Constitution|
|Inaugural holder||Mariano Rivera Paz|
|Formation||December 3, 1839|
|Deputy||Vice President of Guatemala|
|Salary||146,950 GTQ monthly|
($19,742 as of May 2018)
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de Guatemala) officially known as the President of the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Guatemala), is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term.
The position of President was created in 1839. From 1821 until 1839, the head of state of Guatemala was styled simply as Head of State (Spanish: Jefe de Estado).
Requirements to hold office
According to article 185 of the constitution, the following is required to be president:
- A Guatemalan of origin who is a citizen in good standing.
- Forty years of age.
Duties and competences
According to article 183 of the constitution, the following duties and competences are conferred to the president:
- Comply with and enforce the Constitution and laws.
- Provide the defense and security of the Nation, as well as the preservation of public order.
- Exercise the command of the Armed Forces of Guatemala with all the respective functions and attributions.
- Exercise the command of the National Police.
- Approve, promulgate, execute and enforce laws.
- Dictate the provisions that are necessary in cases of serious emergency or public calamity, having to report to the Congress in its immediate sessions.
- Submit proposals of laws to the Congress.
- Exercise the right of veto with respect to the laws issued by the Congress, except in cases in which it is not necessary to sanction the executive branch in accordance with the Constitution.
- Present annually to the Congress, at the beginning of its session, written report on the general situation of the Republic and of the business of its administration carried out during the previous year.
- Submit annually to the Congress, for approval with no less than one hundred and twenty days prior to the date on which the fiscal year begins, through the Ministry of Public Finance, the draft budget that contains in detail the income and expenditures of the State. If the Congress is not in session, it must hold extraordinary sessions to hear about the project.
- Submit for consideration of the Congress for approval, and before ratification, treaties and conventions of international character and contracts and concessions on public services.
- To summon the Legislative Organism to extraordinary sessions when the interests of the Republic demand it.
- Coordinate the development policy of the Nation through the Council of Ministers.
- Preside over the Council of Ministers and exercise the function of hierarchical superior of the officials and employees of the Executive Organism.
- Maintain the territorial integrity and dignity of the Nation.
- Direct foreign policy and international relations, pronounce, ratify and denounce treaties and agreements in accordance with the Constitution.
- Receive the diplomatic representatives, as well as issue and withdraw the exequatur to the patents of the consuls.
- Administer public finances in accordance with the law.
- Exonerate of fines and surcharges to the taxpayers who have incurred in them for not covering the taxes within the legal terms for acts or omissions in the administrative order.
- Appoint and remove ministers of state, deputy ministers, secretaries and undersecretaries of the presidency, ambassadors and other officials that correspond to it according to the law.
- Grant premiums, pensions and subsidies in accordance with the Law.
- Award decorations to Guatemalans and foreigners.
- Within the fifteen days following its conclusion, inform the Congress about the purpose of any trip that has taken place outside the national territory and about the results thereof.
- Submit every four months to the Congress through the respective ministry an analytical report on the budget execution, for its knowledge and control.
- Exercise all other functions assigned by the Constitution or the law.
Heads of State of Guatemala within the Federal Republic of Central America (1821–1839)
- Alejandro Díaz Cabeza de Vaca (Provisional): 15 September 1824 – 12 October 1824
- Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia Cepeda: 12 October 1824 – 9 September 1826
- Cirilo Flores (Acting): 9 September 1826 – 13 October 1826
- José Domingo Estrada (Acting): 2 January 1827 – 1 March 1827
- Mariano de Aycinena y Piñol: 1 March 1827 – 13 April 1829
- Mariano Zenteno (Provisional): 13 April 1829 – 30 April 1829
- Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia Cepeda: 30 April 1829 – 23 August 1829
- Pedro Molina Mazariegos: 23 August 1829 – 10 February 1831
- José Gregorio Márquez (Acting): 10 February 1831 – 28 August 1831
- Mariano Gálvez: 28 August 1831 – 3 March 1838
- Pedro José Valenzuela y Jáuregui (Acting): 3 March 1838 – 29 July 1838
- Mariano Rivera Paz (Acting): 29 July 1838 – 30 January 1839
- Carlos Salazar Castro (Provisional): 30 January 1839 – 13 April 1839
- Mariano Rivera Paz (Acting): 13 April 1839 – 3 December 1839
Presidents of independent Guatemala (1839–present)
|Term of Office||Political Affiliation|
|1||Mariano Rivera Paz
|3 December 1839||25 February 1842||Conservative|
|—||José Venancio López Requena
Acting Head of State
|25 February 1842||14 May 1842||Liberal|
|2||Mariano Rivera Paz
|14 May 1842||14 December 1844||Conservative|
|14 December 1844||16 August 1848||Conservative|
|—||Juan Antonio Martínez
|16 August 1848||28 November 1848||Conservative|
|—||José Bernardo Escobar
|28 November 1848||1 January 1849||Conservative|
|1 January 1849||6 November 1851||Independent|
|6 November 1851||14 April 1865||Conservative|
|—||Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol
|14 April 1865||24 May 1865||Conservative|
|5||Vicente Cerna Sandoval
|24 May 1865||29 June 1871||Conservative|
|6||Miguel García Granados
|29 June 1871||4 June 1873||Liberal|
|7||Justo Rufino Barrios
|4 June 1873||2 April 1885||Liberal|
|—||Alejandro M. Sinibaldi
|2 April 1885||5 April 1885||Liberal|
|6 April 1885||15 March 1892||Liberal|
|9||José María Reina Barrios
|15 March 1892||8 February 1898||Liberal|
|10||Manuel Estrada Cabrera
|8 February 1898||15 April 1920||Liberal|
|15 April 1920||10 December 1921||Unionist Party|
|12||José María Orellana
|10 December 1921||26 September 1926||Liberal|
|13||Lázaro Chacón González
|26 September 1926||2 January 1931||Unionist Party|
|—||José María Reina Andrade
|2 January 1931||14 February 1931||Liberal|
|14||Jorge Ubico Castañeda
|14 February 1931||4 July 1944||Liberal|
|—||Juan Federico Ponce Vaides
|4 July 1944||20 October 1944||Liberal|
|—||Revolutionary Government Junta||20 October 1944||15 March 1945||Military|
|15||Juan José Arévalo Bermejo
|15 March 1945||15 March 1951||Revolutionary Action Party|
|16||Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán
|15 March 1951||27 June 1954
|Revolutionary Action Party /|
Party of the Guatemalan Revolution
|—||Carlos Enrique Díaz de León
|27 June 1954||28 June 1954||Military|
|—||Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre
Chairman of Military Junta
|29 June 1954||8 July 1954||Military|
|17||Carlos Castillo Armas
|8 July 1954||26 July 1957||Military|
|—||Luis Arturo González López
|27 July 1957||24 October 1957||National Progress Party|
|—||Óscar Mendoza Azurdia
Chairman of Military Junta
|24 October 1957||26 October 1957||Military|
|—||Guillermo Flores Avendaño
|26 October 1957||2 March 1958||Military|
|18||Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes
|2 March 1958||31 March 1963||Military /|
National Democratic Reconciliation Party
|19||Enrique Peralta Azurdia
|31 March 1963||1 July 1966||Institutional Democratic Party|
|20||Julio César Méndez Montenegro
|1 July 1966||1 July 1970||Revolutionary Party|
|21||Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio
|1 July 1970||1 July 1974||Institutional Democratic Party|
|22||Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García
|1 July 1974||1 July 1978||Institutional Democratic Party|
|23||Fernando Romeo Lucas García
|1 July 1978||23 March 1982||Institutional Democratic Party|
|24||José Efraín Ríos Montt
|23 March 1982||8 August 1983||Military|
|25||Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores
|8 August 1983||14 January 1986||Military|
|26||Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo
|14 January 1986||14 January 1991||Guatemalan Christian Democracy|
|27||Jorge Antonio Serrano Elías
|14 January 1991||1 June 1993||Solidarity Action Movement|
|28||Gustavo Adolfo Espina Salguero
|1 June 1993||5 June 1993||Solidarity Action Movement|
|29||Ramiro de León Carpio
|6 June 1993||14 January 1996||Independent|
|30||Álvaro Enrique Arzú Irigoyen
|14 January 1996||14 January 2000||National Advancement Party /|
|31||Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera
|14 January 2000||14 January 2004||Guatemalan Republican Front|
|32||Óscar Rafael Berger Perdomo
|14 January 2004||14 January 2008||National Solidarity Party /|
Grand National Alliance
|33||Álvaro Colom Caballeros
|14 January 2008||14 January 2012||National Unity of Hope|
|34||Otto Fernando Pérez Molina
|14 January 2012||3 September 2015||Patriotic Party /|
Grand National Alliance
|—||Alejandro Baltasar Maldonado Aguirre
|3 September 2015||14 January 2016||Independent|
|35||Jimmy Ernesto Morales Cabrera
|14 January 2016||Incumbent||National Convergence Front|
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Jimmy Morales||National Convergence Front||1,167,030||23.85||2,750,847||67.44|
|Sandra Julieta Torres Casanova||National Unity of Hope||967,242||19.76||1,328,381||32.56|
|Manuel Antonio Baldizón Méndez||Renewed Democratic Liberty||961,284||19.64|
|Alejandro Eduardo Giammattei Falla||Fuerza||315,774||6.45|
|Zury Maité Ríos Sosa||Vision with Values||288,421||5.89|
|Lizardo Arturo Sosa López||Todos||260,801||5.33|
|Mario David Antonio García Velásquez||Patriotic Party||226,372||4.63|
|Roberto González Díaz-Durán||CREO–Unionist Party||168,715||3.45|
|Mario Amilcar Estrada Orellana||National Change Union||168,664||3.45|
|Juan Guillermo Gutiérrez Strauss||National Advancement Party||151,655||3.10|
|Miguel Ángel Sandoval||Winaq–URNG–MAIZ||103,300||2.11|
|José Ángel López Camposeco||Encounter for Guatemala||44,360||0.91|
|Luis Fernando Pérez Martínez||Institutional Republican Party||41,964||0.86|
|Rodolfo Aníbal García Hernández||New Republic Movement||28,427||0.58|
Living former presidents
Vinicio Cerezo, 1986–1991
Jorge Serrano Elías, 1991–1993
Alfonso Portillo, 2000–2004
Óscar Berger, 2004–2008
Álvaro Colom, 2008–2012
Otto Pérez Molina, 2012–2015
Alejandro Maldonado, 2015–2016
- Rony Ríos (17 January 2017). "Jimmy Morales el presidente mejor pagado de Latinoamérica". elPeriódico. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.