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Renkyō Line

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Renkyō Line
Asia Express.jpg
The "Asia Express" running on the Renkyō Line.
Overview
Native name連京線 (Renkyōsen, Liánjīngxiàn)
TypeHeavy rail,
Regional rail
Statussee article
LocaleManchukuo, Kwantung Leased Territory
TerminiDairen
Xinjing
Operation
Opened1 September 1907 (see article)
Closed1955 (see article)
OwnerSouth Manchuria Railway
Technical
Line length701.4 km (435.8 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Old gauge1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge
Route map

Up arrow Gusai Line
Right arrow Futō Line
0.0
Dairen
Right arrow Nyūzen Line
4.0
Shakakō
8.9
Shūsuishi
Right arrow Ryojun Line (zh)
15.5
Nankanrei
23.2
Entō
27.7
Daibōshin
32.5
Kinshū
Left arrow Kinjō Line (zh)
46.4
Nijūridai
55.8
Sanjūrihō
66.1
Sekika
77.2
Furanten
94.1
Tenka
105.0
Gabōten
112.7
Ōka
124.1
Tokuriji
130.7
Shōshu
146.3
Bankarei
160.5
Kyokaton
168.0
Kyūsai
173.9
Rizan
Closed 1944
178.2
Ugakujō
188.2
Rokaton
199.0
Sakō
209.6
Kaihei
218.3
Hakuki
Closed 1944
228.3
Taiheizan
Right arrow Eikō Line
239.5
Daisekikyō
247.1
Funsui
255.1
Tazan
263
Tōōzan
271.6
Kaijō
280.7
Nantai
285.5
Kansenfu
Closed 1944
292.8
Tōkōshi
302.2
Senzan
307.3
Anzan
312.6
Rissan
Dairakuton
317.6
Reizan
321.7
Shuzan
Left arrow MNR Liaogong Connecting Line (zh)
332.3
Ryōyō
339.0
Taishika
Closed 1944
345.2
Chōdaishi
Left arrow Endai Colliery Line
354.6
Endai
362.9
Jūrika
371.7
Shaka
Left arrow Anpō Line
381.0
Sokaton
Left arrow Bushun Line (zh)
Right arrow MNR Fengshan Line
Left arrow Kon'yu Connecting Line
388.0
Konga
392.1
Minami-Hōten
Up arrow MNR Fengyu Connecting Line
396.6
Hōten
Right arrow MNR Huanggutun Connecting Line
398
Kita-Hōten
Left arrow MNR Fengji Line (zh)
409.7
Bunkanton
417.2
Kosekidai
422.1
Tōsanka
Closed 1944
429.3
Shinseiji
441.3
Shindaiji
448.7
Ransekizan
458.5
Tokushōdai
468.0
Tetsurei
478.7
Heichōho
482.6
Santōhō
Closed 1944
489.5
Chūko
501.5
Kaigen
Left arrow Kaifeng Railway (zh) Kaifeng Line
512.3
Kinkōji
522.4
Bachūka
532.6
Shōto
547.0
Sentō
557.6
Sōbyōji
566.7
Enkōji
573.2
Bōgyūshō
Left arrow MNR Shibai Line (zh)
585.9
Shihei
Right arrow MNR Heisei Line (zh)
592.4
Yōmokurin
601.5
Jūkahō
612.3
Kakukaten
623
Saika
631.5
Daiyuju
639.4
Kōshurei
650.2
Rubōshi
661.0
Tōkaton
671.2
Hankaton
692.7
Mōkaton
696.4
Minami-Shinkyō
Sensō
Kanseiji
Left arrow MNR Jingbai Line (zh)
701.4
Shinkyō
Left arrow MNR Jingtu Line (zh)
Down arrow MNR Jingbin Line

The Renkyō Line (連京線; in Chinese Lianjing Line, Liánjīng Xiàn) was the primary trunk line of the South Manchuria Railway from 1907 to 1945. The 701.4 km (435.8 mi) line ran between Dalian (Dairen) and Changchun (Xinjing).

The rights to manage this railway line was one of the main concessions that Japan acquired from Russia after the Russo-Japanese War. It played an important role in Japan's control of Manchuria, as a key connection in traffic between east Asia and Europe and as a means of conveying resources mined inland to the coast. The line's importance to freight traffic decreased somewhat after the opening of the shorter North Chosen Line via the Korean port of Najin. It remained important to passenger traffic, however, as the "Asia Express" Dalian–Harbin limited express train, inaugurated in 1943, operated on this line between Dalian and Xinjing.[1] In August 1945, after Japan's defeat in the Pacific War, control of this and all other Mantetsu lines was passed to the Sino-Soviet China Changchun Railway.

History[edit]

The Renkyō Line began as the "South Manchuria Line" of the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway running from Harbin to Port Arthur. Russia obtained the rights to build this line from Qing China; work began on 27 March 1898, and the 1,524 mm (5 ft 0 in) broad gauge line was opened to traffic in July 1903. Following Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan gained the rights to operate the Harbin–Lüshun (Ryojun) section of the CER; the line was then converted from Russian broad gauge to the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6.0 in) Cape gauge used in Japan, to allow the use of rolling stock from Japan. The line was operated by the Imperial Japanese Army until it was taken over by the South Manchuria Railway Company (Mantetsu), established on 26 November 1906.[2] Mantetsu immediately set to regauging the line again, this time from Cape gauge to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8.5 in) standard gauge.[3]

Mantetsu created the Renkyō Line - then called the Manchu Main Line (満洲本線, Manshū Honsen, Mǎnzhōu Běnxiàn) - between Dairen and Mengjiatun (Mōkaton) on 1 April 1907, and extending it to Changchun (Chōshun) on 1 September 1907. Regauging of the entire line was completed in 1908, and on 27 May of that year through service between Dairen and Chōshun began on the all-standard gauge line. The Anpō Line, which connected to the Renkyō Line at Fengtian (Hōten) and was initially built as a 762 mm (2 ft 6.0 in) narrow-gauge line, was converted to standard gauge in November 1911, and from 15 June 1912 direct operation between Busan and Changchun began, via the Chosen Government Railway's Gyeongbu and Gyeongui Lines, the Anpō Line, and the Renkyō Line from Fengtian to Changchun. Double-tracking of the line from Sujiatun (Sokaton) to Dairen was completed on 27 October 1908, but it wasn't until 30 November 1918 that the section from Sujiatun to Fengtian was doubled. Between 1919 and 1926 the entire line was relaid with 100-lb/yd (50 kg/m) rail. The first colour light signals for automatic block signalling were installed on the Dalian–Jinzhou (Kinshū) and Fengtian–Sujiatun sections on 12 February 1924, and the entire section from Dalian to Fengtian received automatic blocking by 5 November 1933. On 15 July 1927, the line's name was changed from Manchu Main Line to Renchō Line (連長線; "Lianchang Line", Liáncháng Xiàn, in Chinese).

Using the Mukden Incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria, Japan created the puppet state of Manchukuo in March 1932;[4] Changchun was designated the capital city, and was renamed Xinjing (Shinkyō), and the line was renamed once again, becoming the Renkyō Line at that time. The "Asia Express", a world-class limited express train,[5] was introduced on 26 September 1934 between Dalian and Xinjing. The Manchukuo National Railway, which had taken over the remainder of the Chinese Eastern Railway, finished the conversion of the Jingbin Line from Xinjing to Harbin from broad gauge to standard gauge on 31 August 1935, and from 1 September the Asia Express service was extended to Harbin.

Japan's deteriorating situation in the Pacific War affected the line significantly. The Asia Express was suspended at the end of February 1943. The loss of air and sea superiority led to a drastic reduction in freight traffic to the port at Dalian, being instead redirected to Korean ports, via the North Chosen Line to the ports of Najin and Unggi, and via the Anpō Line and the Chosen Government Railway to Busan. Between 1 August and 3 November 1944, the second track of the 180.3 km (112.0 mi) section between Sanshilibao (Sanjūrihō) and Dashiqiao (Daisekikyō) was removed, with the railways being used to upgrade Mantetsu's Anpō Line and the Manchukuo National Railway's Fengshan Line from Fengtian to Shanhaiguan.[6]

On 9 August 1945, the Soviet Union invaded Manchukuo, and on the 14th, the USSR and the Republic of China signed a treaty of friendship; the signing of the treaty was announced on the 27th. Under the terms of this treaty, a Sino-Soviet joint enterprise was formed, called the China Changchun Railway, to operate the Renkyō Line (known as the Changda Line after Xinjing reverted to its original name, Changchun) and a number of lines formerly owned by the Manchukuo National Railway, including the Xinjing–Harbin Jingbin Line and the Harbin–Manzhouli Binzhou Line. Mantetsu was formally dissolved on 30 September 1945.[7] The China Changchun Railway was transferred to China Railway in 1955, after which the Changda Line was split up, with the Dalian–Shenyang section becoming the Shenda Railway, and the Shenyang–Changchun section becoming part of the Beijing–Harbin Jingha Railway.

Services[edit]

In addition to many freight trains and local passenger trains, a number of domestic and international express and limited express trains operated on this line. Most important of these was the flagship "Asia Express", running between Dalian and Harbin from 1934 to 1943, which was comparable to the most prestigious European and American express trains of the day,[5] which featured several world firsts, such as fully enclosed, air-conditioned carriages.[8] The "Hato" express operated from 1932 to 1945, running between Dalian and Xinjing. There were two international express services serving Korea and Manchukuo: the "Hikari" between Busan and Harbin, which operated from 1934 to 1945, and the "Nozomi", which ran between Busan and Xinjing.

Route[edit]

In the "Stops" columns, ● indicates a stop made by all trains of that category, ▲ indicates a stop made only by some trains of that category, ○ indicates a stop made by all trains of that category after October 1939, and | indicates that trains of that category did not stop at that station. Ordinary passenger trains stopped at all stations except signal stops.

Distance Station name Stops
Total; km S2S; km Japanese Chinese Post-1945 Exp. Ltd. Opened Connections
0.0 0.0 Dairen
大連
Dalian Dalian 1903 Gusai Line
4.0 4.0 Shakakō
沙河口
Shahekou Shahekou 1909 Futō Line, Nyūzen Line
8.9 4.9 Shūsuishi
周水子
Zhoushuizi Zhoushuizi 1907 Ryojun Line
15.5 6.6 Nankanrei
南関嶺
Nanguanling Nanguanling
23.2 7.7 Entō
塩島
Yandao Yandao 1911
27.7 4.5 Daibōshin
大房身
Dafangshen Dafangshen 1903
32.5 4.8 Kinshū
金州
Jinzhou Jinzhou 1903 Kinjō Line (zh)
46.4 13.9 Nijūridai
二十里台
Ershirlitai Ershirlitai
55.8 9.4 Sanjūrihō
三十里堡
Sanshilibao Sanshilibao
66.1 10.3 Sekika
石河
Shihe Shihe
77.2 11.1 Furanten
普蘭店
Pulandian Pulandian 1903
94.1 6.9 Tenka
田家
Tianjia Tianjia
105.0 10.9 Gabōten
瓦房店
Wafangdian Wafangdian 1903
112.7 7.7 Ōka
王家
Wangjia Wangjia
124.1 11.4 Tokuriji
得利寺
Delisi Delisi
130.7 6.6 Shōshu
松樹
Songshu Songshu
146.3 15.6 Bankarei
万家嶺
Wanjialing Wanjialing
160.5 14.2 Kyokaton
許家屯
Xujiatun Xujiatun 1938
168.0 7 Kyūsai
九寨
Jiuzhai Jiuzhai
173.9 5.9 Rizan
梨山
Lishan - Closed 1 April 1944
178.2 4.3 Ugakujō
熊岳城
Xiongyuecheng Xiongyuecheng 1903
188.2 10.0 Rokaton
芦家屯
Lujiatun Lujiatun
199.0 10.8 Sakō
沙崗
Shagang Shagang
209.6 11 Kaihei
蓋平
Gaiping Gaizhou 1903
218.3 8.7 Hakuki
白旗
Baiqi - Closed 1 April 1944
228.3 10.0 Taiheizan
太平山
Taipingshan Taipingshan
239.5 11.2 Daisekikyō
大石橋
Dashiqiao Dashiqiao 1900 Eikō Line
247.1 7.6 Funsui
分水
Fenshui Fenshui
255.1 8.0 Tazan
他山
Tashan Tashan
263 Tōōzan
唐王山
Tangwangshan Tangwangshan 1935
271.6 ~8 Kaijō
海城
Haicheng Haicheng 1903
280.7 9.1 Nantai
南台
Nantai Nantai 1907
285.5 4.8 Kansenfu
甘泉鋪
Ganquanpu - Closed 1 September 1944
292.8 7.3 Tōkōshi
湯崗子
Tanggangzi Tanggangzi 1907
302.2 9.4 Senzan
千山
Qianshan Jiupu 1905
307.3 5.1 Anzan
鞍山
Anshan Anshan 1918
312.6 5.3 Rissan
立山
Lishan Lishan
Dairakuton-shingōsho
大樂屯信号所
Daletun signal stop
317.6 5.0 Reizan
霊山
Lingshan Lingshan 1907
321.7 4.1 Shuzan
首山
Shoushan Shoushan 1907
332.3 10.6 Ryōyō
遼陽
Liaoyang Liaoyang 1899 Liaogong Line (zh)
339.0 6.7 Taishika
太子河
Taizihe - 1931 Closed 1 September 1944
345.2 6.2 Chōdaishi
張台子
Zhangtaizi Zhangtaizi 1907
354.6 9.4 Endai
煙台
Yantai Dengta 1903 Endai Colliery Line
362.9 8.3 Jūrika
十里河
Shilihe Shilihe 1919
371.7 8.8 Shaka
沙河
Shahe Linshengpu 1911
381.0 9.3 Sokaton
蘇家屯
Sujiatun Sujiatun 1903 Anpō Line, Bushun Line (zh)
388.0 7.0 Konga
渾河
Hunhe Hunhe 1902 Anpō Line, Kon'yu Connecting Line, MNR Fengshan Line
392.1 4.1 Minami-Hōten
南奉天
South Fengtian Shenyang South
396.6 4.5 Hōten
奉天
Fengtian Shenyang 1899 Anpō Line, MNR Fengshan Line, MNR Fengji Line (zh)
398 ~3 Kita-Hōten
北奉天
North Fengtian Shenyang North 1911 MNR Huanggutun Connecting Line
409.7 ~11 Bunkanton
文官屯
Wenguantun Wenguantun 1907
417.2 7.5 Kosekidai
虎石台
Hushitai Hushitai 1901
422.1 4.9 Tōsanka
唐三家
Tangsanjia - Closed 1 September 1944
429.3 7.2 Shinseiji
新城子
Xinchengzi Xinchengzi 1908
441.3 12.0 Shindaiji
新台子
Xintaizi Xintaizi 1899
448.8 7.5 Ransekizan
乱石山
Luanshishan Luanshishan 1907
458.5 9.7 Tokushōdai
得勝台
Deshengtai Deshengtai 1907
468.0 9.5 Tetsurei
鐵嶺
Tieling Tieling 1900
478.7 10.7 Heichōho
平頂堡
Pingdingbao Pingdingbao 1907
482.6 3.9 Santōhō
山頭堡
Shantoubao - Closed 1 September 1944
489.5 6.9 Chūko
中固
Zhonggu Zhonggu 1907
501.5 12.0 Kaigen
開原
Kaiyuan Kaiyuan 1901 Kaifeng Railway (ja) Kaifeng Line
512.3 10.8 Kinkōji
金溝子
Jingouzi Jingouzi 1909
522.4 10.1 Bachūka
馬仲河
Mazhonghe Mazhonghe 1909
532.6 10.2 Shōto
昌圖
Changtu Changtu 1901
540.0 7.4 Mansei
満井
Manjing Manjing 1907
547.0 7.0 Sentō
泉頭
Quantou Quantou 1911
557.6 10.6 Sōbyōji
雙廟子
Shuangmiaozi Shuangmiaozi 1901
566.7 9.1 Enkōji
垣勾子
Maojiadian Maojiadian 1911
573.2 6.5 Bōgyūshō
虻牛哨
Mengniushao Mengniushao 1911
585.9 12.7 Shihei 四平
Shiheigai 四平街 (to 1941)
Siping Siping 1902 MNR Shibai Line (zh), MNR Heisei Line (zh)
592.4 6.5 Yōmokurin
楊木林
Yangmulin Yangmulin 1919
601.5 9.1 Jūkahō
十家堡
Shijiabao Shijiabao 1909
612.3 10.8 Kakukaten
郭家店
Guojiadian Guojiadian 1901
623.0 10.7 Saika
蔡家
Caijia Caijia 1911
631.5 8.5 Daiyuju
大楡樹
Dayushu Dayushu 1908
639.4 7.9 Kōshurei
公主嶺
Gongzhuling Gongzhuling 1901
650.2 10.8 Rubōshi
劉房子
Liufangzi Liufangzi 1908
661.0 10.8 Tōkaton
陶家屯
Taojiatun Taojiatun 1916
671.2 10.2 Hankaton
范家屯
Fanjiatun Fanjiatun 1901
681.6 10.4 Daiton
大屯
Datun Datun 1907
692.7 11.1 Mōkaton
孟家屯
Mengjiatun Mengjiatun
696.4 3.7 Minami-Shinkyō
南新京
South Xinjing Changchun South 1906
Sensō-shingōba
千早信号場
Qianzao signal stop
701.4 5.0 Shinkyō
新京
Xinjing Changchun 1907 MNR Jingbai Line (zh), MNR Jingbin Line, MNR Jingtu Line (zh),

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ichihara, Yoshizumi, 写真集南満洲鉄道 (South Manchuria Railway Photo Collection) pp. 119-120, 135, 1998 Seibundo Shinkosha Publishing Co. Ltd. (in Japanese)
  2. ^ Young, Japan's Total Empire, pp 25
  3. ^ Luis Jackson, Industrial Commissioner of the Erie Railroad. "Rambles in Japan and China". In Railway and Locomotive Engineering, vol. 26 (March 1913), pp. 91-92
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on Manchukuo Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b 1934年(昭和9年) パシナ形蒸気機関車979号が当社製造蒸気機関車の1,500両目となる : 沿革 : 川崎重工 車両カンパニー. www.khi.co.jp (in Japanese). Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  6. ^ 『満鉄四十年史』 "40 Years of Mantetsu", pp. 199–202"
  7. ^ 『満鉄四十年史』 "40 Years of Mantetsu", pp. 215–220"
  8. ^ 満州写真館 特急あじあ (in Japanese)