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Revolutionary Serbia

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Revolutionary Serbia

Устаничка Србија
Ustanička Srbija
1804–1813
Revolutionary Serbia in 1813.
Revolutionary Serbia in 1813.
CapitalTopola (1805–13)
Official languagesSerbian
GovernmentAutonomous principality[clarification needed]
Grand Vožd 
• 1805–13
Karađorđe
History 
• Establishment of government
1804
1804–13
July 1806–January 1807
10 July 1807
• Restoration of Ottoman rule
October 1813
• Disestablished
1813
Area
1815[1]24,440 km2 (9,440 sq mi)
Population
• 1815[1]
332,000
ISO 3166 codeRS
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ottoman Empire
Sanjak of Smederevo
Ottoman Empire
Sanjak of Smederevo
Principality of Serbia

Revolutionary Serbia (Serbian: Устаничка Србија / Ustanička Srbija) or Karađorđe's Serbia (Карађорђева Србија / Karađorđeva Srbija) refers to the state established by Serbian revolutionaries in Ottoman Serbia (Sanjak of Smederevo) after successful military operations against the Ottoman Empire and establishment of government in 1805. The Sublime Porte first officially recognized the state as autonomous in January 1807, however, the Serbian revolutionaries rejected the treaty and continued fighting the Ottomans until 1813. Although the first uprising was crushed, it was followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, which resulted in the creation of the Principality of Serbia, as it gained semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1817.

Political history[edit]

First Serbian Uprising[edit]

Stratimirović's Memorandum[edit]

  • Stratimirović's Memorandum (1804)[2]

Ičko's Peace[edit]

Between July and October 1806 Petar Ičko, an Ottoman dragoman (diplomat) and representative of the Serbian rebels, negotiated a peace treaty known in historiography as "Ičko's Peace". Ičko had been sent to Constantinople twice in the latter half of 1806 to negotiate peace. The Ottomans seemed ready to grant Serbia autonomy following rebel victories in 1805 and 1806, also pressured by the Russians, who had taken Moldavia and Wallachia; they agreed to a sort of autonomy and clearer stipulation of taxes in January 1807, by which time the rebels had already taken Belgrade. The rebels rejected the treaty and sought Russian aid to their independence, while the Ottomans had declared war on Russia in December 1806. A Russian-Serbian alliance treaty was signed on 10 June 1807.

Russian–Serbian Alliance[edit]

On 10 July 1807, the Serbian rebels under Karađorđe signed an alliance with the Russian Empire during the First Serbian Uprising. After the Ottoman Empire had allied itself with Napoleon in late 1806, and was attacked by Russia and Britain, it sought to meet the demands of the Serbian rebels. At the same time, the Russians offered the Serbs aid and cooperation. The Serbs chose alliance with the Russians over autonomy under the Ottomans (as set by the "Ičko's Peace"). Karađorđe was to receive arms, and military and medical missions, which proved to be a turning point in the Serbian Revolution.

Proclamations[edit]

  • A proclamation (Slavonic-Serbian: Проглашенie) calling for the unity of Serbs, dated 21 February 1809.[3]
  • A proclamation with 15 points, dated 16 August 1809.[4]

Treaty of Bucharest (1812)[edit]

Government[edit]

Seal of the Ruling Council.

Rule was divided between Grand Vožd Karađorđe, the Narodna Skupština (People's Assembly) and the Praviteljstvujušči Sovjet (Ruling Council), established in 1805.

Ruling Council[edit]

The Ruling Council was established by recommendation of the Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs Czartoryski and on the proposal of some of the dukes (Jakov and Matija Nenadović, Milan Obrenović, Sima Marković).[5] The idea of Boža Grujović, the first secretary, and Matija Nenadović, the first president, was that the council would become the government of the new Serbian state.[6] It had to organize and supervise the administration, the economy, army supply, order and peace, judiciary, and foreign policy.[6]

Date Members
August 1805 Mladen Milovanović, Avram Lukić, Jovan Protić, Pavle Popović, Velisav Stanojlović, Janko Đurđević, Đurica Stočić, Milisav Ilijić, Ilija Marković, Vasilije Radojičić (Popović, Jović), Milutin Vasić, Jevto Savić-Čotrić, Dositej Obradović and Petar Novaković Čardaklija
End of 1805 Archpriest Matija Nenadović (president), and members Jakov Nenadović, Janko Katić, Milenko Stojković, Luka Lazarević and Milan Obrenović.
November 1810 Jakov Nenadović (president), and members Pavle Popović, Velisav Perić, Vasilije Jović (Radojičić), Janko Đurđević, Dositej Obradović, Ilija Marković, and secretaries Stevan Filipović and Mihailo Grujović.

Ministries[edit]

In 1811, the government system was reorganized, with the formation of ministries (popečiteljstva) instead of nahija-representatives.

Ministries Ministers
President Karađorđe (s. –1813)
International Affairs Milenko Stojković (s. 1811); Miljko Radonić (s. 1811–12)
Education Dositej Obradović (s. 1811); Ivan Jugović (s. 1811–12)
Military Mladen Milovanović (s. 1811–13)
Internal Affairs Jakov Nenadović (s. 1811–13)
Law Petar Dobrnjac (s. 1811); Ilija Marković (s. 1811–13)
Finance Sima Marković (s. 1811–13)
Secretaries Mihailo Grujović (1st) and Stevan Filipović (2nd)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael R. Palairet (2002). The Balkan Economies C.1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-521-52256-4.
  2. ^ Vladislav B. Sotirović. ""The Memorandum (1804) by the Karlovci Metropolitan Stevan Stratimirović", Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies, Vol. 24, 2010, № 1−2, ISSN 0742-3330, 2012, Slavica Publishers, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, pp. 27−48".
  3. ^ Vjesnik Kr. državnog arkiva u Zagrebu. 17-18. Tisak zaklade tiskare narodnih novina. 1915. p. 124.
  4. ^ Trifunovska 1994, pp. 3–4.
  5. ^ Janković 1955, p. 18.
  6. ^ a b Čubrilović 1982, p. 65.

Sources[edit]