The Soviet Empire refers to the entire territory under the administration or various levels of influence on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (December 30, 1922 - December 26, 1991).
The informal term "Soviet Empire" has two meanings. In the narrow sense, it expresses a view in Western Sovietology that the Soviet Union as a state was a colonial empire. The onset of this interpretation is traditionally attributed to Richard Pipes's book The Formation of the Soviet Union (1954). In the wider sense, it refers to the country's perceived imperialist foreign policy during the Cold War. The nations said to be part of the Soviet Empire (in the wider sense) were officially independent countries with separate governments that set their own policies, but those policies had to remain within certain limits decided by the Soviet Union and enforced by threat of intervention by the Warsaw Pact (Hungary 1956, Czechoslovakia 1968 and Poland 1980). Countries in this situation are often called satellite states.
Though the Soviet Union was not ruled by an emperor and declared itself anti-imperialist and a people's democracy, critics argue that it exhibited tendencies common to historic empires. Some scholars hold that the Soviet Union was a hybrid entity containing elements common to both multinational empires and nation states. It has also been argued that the Soviet Union practiced colonialism as did other imperial powers. Maoists argued that the Soviet Union had itself become an imperialist power while maintaining a socialist façade.
The other dimension of "Soviet imperialism" is cultural imperialism. The policy of Soviet cultural imperialism implied the Sovietization of culture and education at the expense of local traditions.
To understand why the reactions of the Eastern European countries to remnants of Soviets culture are those of hatred and longing for eradication, we must turn to the history of relationship between the USSR's dominant republic, Russia, and these Eastern European countries. Poland and the Baltic states epitomize the Soviet attempt at uniformization of their cultures and political systems. According to Noren, Russia was seeking to constitute and reinforce a buffer zone between itself and Western Europe so as to potentially protect itself from potential, future attacks from hostile Western European countries. It is important to remember that the country lost, all the socialistic republics merged together, between 26 and 27 million lives over the course the Second World War. To this end, the USSR needed to expand their influences so as to establish a hierarchy of dependence between the targeted states and itself. Such a purpose could be best achieved by means of the establishment of economic cronyism.
The penetration of the Soviet influence into the "socialist-leaning countries" was also of the political and ideological kind as rather than getting hold on their economic riches, the Soviet Union pumped enormous amounts of "international assistance" into them in order to secure influence, eventually to the detriment of its own economy. The political influence they sought to pursue aimed at rallying the targeted countries to their cause in the case of another attack from Western countries and, later, as a support in the context of the Cold War. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when Russia declared itself successor it recognized $103 billion of Soviet foreign debt while claiming $140 billion of Soviet assets abroad.
This does not mean that economic expansion did not play a significant role in the Soviet motivate to spread influence in these satellite territories. In fact, these new territories would ensure an increase in the global wealth which the USSR would have a grasp on, which, if we follow the theoretical communist ideology, would contribute to a higher portion for every Soviet citizen through the process fo redistribution of wealth.
Soviet officials from the Russian SSR intertwined this economic opportunity with a potential for migration. In fact, they discern in these Eastern European countries the capacity of a workforce to whom they offered a welcome upon the only condition that they be individuals to work hard and to achieve social success. This ideology was shaped on the model the meritocratic American foreign policy over the course of the nineteenth century.
Soviet satellite states
These countries were the closest allies of the Soviet Union. They were often members of the Comecon, a Soviet-led economic community founded in 1949. In addition, the ones located in Eastern Europe were also members of the Warsaw Pact. They were sometimes called the Eastern bloc in English and were widely viewed as Soviet satellite states.
- Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
- Albania (ended participation in Comecon after 1961 due to Soviet–Albanian split)
- People's Republic of Angola after the Soviet intervention in the Angolan Civil War
- China (before the Sino-Soviet split)
- East Germany
- People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
- Nicaragua (due to the Nicaraguan Revolution)
- North Korea (1945–1991; after Chinese intervention in the Korean War in 1950, North Korea remained a Soviet ally, but used the Juche ideology to balance Chinese and Soviet influence, pursuing a highly isolationist foreign policy and not joining the Comecon or any other international organization of communist states following the withdrawal of Chinese troops in 1958)
- South Yemen
- North Vietnam/Vietnam (after 1976)
- Tuvan People's Republic (annexed by Soviet Union in 1944)
- Yugoslav Partisans/Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (ended affiliation with the Soviet Union in 1948 due to Tito–Stalin Split)
Independent communist states
Some communist states were sovereign from the Soviet Union and criticized many policies of the Soviet Union. Relations were often tense, sometimes even to the point of armed conflict.
- Yugoslavia (Informbiro period; 1948–1955)
- Albania (following the Soviet–Albanian split in 1955 to the Sino-Albanian split in 1972)
- China (following the Sino-Soviet split)
- Cambodia (1975–1979; due to the Cambodian-Vietnamese War)
- Somalia (1977–1991; due to the Ogaden War)
- Romania (1968-1989; due to Nicolae Ceauşescu's refusal to participate in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia)
Soviet involvement in the Third World
Some countries in the Third World had pro-Soviet governments during the Cold War. In the political terminology of the Soviet Union, these were "countries moving along the socialist road of development" as opposed to the more advanced "countries of developed socialism", which were mostly located in Eastern Europe, but also included Vietnam and Cuba. They received some aid, either military or economic, from the Soviet Union and were influenced by it to varying degrees. Sometimes, their support for the Soviet Union eventually stopped for various reasons and in some cases the pro-Soviet government lost power while in other cases the same government remained in power, but ended its alliance with the Soviet Union.
Some of these countries were not communist states. They are marked in italic.
- Egypt (1954–1973)
- Syria (1955–1991)
- Iraq (1958–1963, 1968–1991)
- Guinea (1960–1978)
- Mali (1960–1968)
- Burma (1962–1988)
- Somali Democratic Republic (1969–1977; at the outbreak of the Somali invasion of Ethiopia in 1977, the Soviet Union ceased to support Somalia, with the corresponding change in rhetoric, but Somalia broke diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and the United States adopted Somalia as a Cold War ally)
- Algeria (1962–1990)
- Ghana (1964–1966)
- Equatorial Guinea (1968–1979)
- Peru (1968–1975)
- Sudan (1968–1972)
- Libya (1969–1991)
- People's Republic of the Congo (1969–1991)
- Chile (1970–1973)
- Cape Verde (1975–1990)
- Sao Tome and Principe (1975–1991)
- South Yemen (1967–1990)
- Indonesia (1959–1965)
- India (1971–1989)
- People's Republic of Bangladesh (1971–1975)
- Democratic Republic of Madagascar (1972–1991)
- Guinea Bissau (1973–1991)
- Derg (1974–1987)/ People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1987–1991)
- Lao People's Democratic Republic (1975–1991)
- People's Republic of Benin (1975–1990)
- People's Republic of Mozambique (1975–1990)
- People's Republic of Angola (1975–1991)
- Seychelles (1977–1991)
- Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1991)
- People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada (1979–1983)
- Nicaragua (1979–1990)
- People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979–1989)
- Burkina Faso (1983–1987)
In addition, Guyana, Tanzania, Portugal and Sri Lanka constitutionally declared themselves to be socialist, even though the Soviet Union never believed them to be "moving toward socialism".
The position of Finland was complex. In World War II, Finland had successfully resisted Soviet attack in 1944 and remained in control of most of its territory at the end of the war. Finland also had a market economy, traded on the Western markets and joined the Western currency system. Nevertheless, although Finland was considered neutral, the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 significantly limited the freedom of operation in Finnish foreign policy. It required Finland to defend the Soviet Union from attacks through its territory, which in practice prevented Finland from joining NATO and effectively gave the Soviet Union a veto in Finnish foreign policy. The Soviet Union could thus exercise "imperial" hegemonic power even towards a neutral state. The Paasikivi–Kekkonen doctrine sought to maintain friendly relations with the Soviet Union and extensive bilateral trade developed. In the West, this led to fears of the spread of "Finlandization", where Western allies would no longer reliably support the United States and NATO.
Post-Soviet era reactions to persisting Soviet dominance
In 2018, Poland carries on with its project to continually demolish statues erected in favor of Soviet heroes and liberators. Warsaw justifies such radical measures by its counter-reactionary approach to persisting domination of the Soviet culture in "satellite states" like itself. This has sparked fervent controversy with Russian minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov and Director of the Information and Press Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Maria Zakharova have lashed out at Warsaw officials for destroying the history that links the two countries together. The Polish, on the other side, are seeking to eliminate all materialistic reminders of a persisting Soviet dominance, as they have historically been countless wars against the Russian Empire in the latter's efforts to invade Polish territory.
- American imperialism
- Anti-Russian sentiment
- Captive Nations
- Communist state
- Evil Empire speech
- Foreign relations of the Soviet Union
- Index of Soviet Union-related articles
- Sino-Soviet split
- Nelly Bekus (2010). Struggle Over Identity: The Official and the Alternative "Belarusianness". p. 4.
- Mark R. Beissinger (2006). "Soviet Empire as 'Family Resemblance'". Slavic Review. 65 (2). 294–303.
Bhavna Dave (2007). Kazakhstan: Ethnicity, Language and Power. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.
- Caroe, O. (1953). "Soviet Colonialism in Central Asia". Foreign Affairs. 32 (1): 135–144. JSTOR 20031013.
- Natalia Tsvetkova. Failure of American and Soviet Cultural Imperialism in German Universities, 1945-1990. Boston, Leiden: Brill, 2013
- Noren, Dag Wincens (1990). The Soviet Union and eastern Europe : considerations in a political transformation of the Soviet bloc. Amherst, MA, USA: University of Massachusetts Amherst. pp. 27–38.
- Ellman, Michael; Maksudov, S. (1994-01-01). "Soviet deaths in the great patriotic war: A note". Europe-Asia Studies. 46 (4): 671–680. doi:10.1080/09668139408412190. ISSN 0966-8136. PMID 12288331.
- Dmitri Trenin (2011). Post-Imperium: A Eurasian Story. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 144-145.
- "Виталий Лейбин: Экономическая экспансия России и имперский госзаказ - ПОЛИТ.РУ". m.polit.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2019-04-20.
- Cornis-Pope, Marcel (2004). History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe: Junctures and disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. John Benjamins. p. 29. ISBN 978-90-272-3452-0.
- Dawson, Andrew H. (1986). Planning in Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-7099-0863-0.
- Shin, Gi-Wook (2006). Ethnic nationalism in Korea: genealogy, politics, and legacy. Stanford University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8047-5408-8.
- Jeremy Friedman, Shadow Cold War: The Sino-Soviet Competition for the Third World (2015)
- Richard Crockatt (1995). The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in World Politics. London and New York City, New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-10471-5.
- "The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, "National" Identity, and Theories of Empire" (PDF).
- "Finns Worried About Russian Border".
- Sputnik. "Moscow Slams Demolition of Soviet Monuments in Poland as 'Crippling' History". sputniknews.com. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
- Crozier, Brian. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire (1999), long detailed popular history
- Dallin, David J. Soviet Russia and the Far East (1949) online on China and Japan
- Friedman, Jeremy. Shadow Cold War: The Sino-Soviet Competition for the Third World (2015)
- Librach, Jan. The Rise of the Soviet Empire: A Study of Soviet Foreign Policy (Praeger, 1965) online free, a scholarly history
- Nogee, Joseph L. and Robert Donaldson. Soviet Foreign Policy Since World War II (4th ed. 1992)
- Service, Robert. Comrades! A history of world communism (2007).
- Ulam, Adam B. Expansion and Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917–1973, 2nd ed. (1974), a standard scholarly history online free
- Zubok, Vladislav M. A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007) excerpt and text search