Ten Pound Poms
Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Ten Pound Poms (or Ten Pound tourists) is a colloquial term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe British citizens who migrated to Australia and New Zealand after the Second World War. The Government of Australia initiated the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme in 1945, and the Government of New Zealand initiated a similar scheme in July 1947. Ten Pound poms were called that because they only had to pay £10 in processing fees to migrate to Australia and the Commonwealth arranged for assisted passage on chartered ships and aircraft.
Assisted Passage Migration Scheme
The Assisted Passage Migration Scheme was created in 1945 by the Chifley Government and its first Minister for Immigration, Arthur Calwell, as part of the "Populate or Perish" policy. It was intended to substantially increase the population of Australia and to supply workers for the country's booming industries. In return for subsidising the cost of travelling to Australia—adult migrants were charged only ten pounds sterling for the fare (hence the name; in 1945 pounds, equivalent to £424 in 2018), and migrant scheme children travelled free of charge—the Government promised employment prospects, affordable housing and a generally more optimistic lifestyle. Upon arrival, migrants were placed in basic migration hostels and the expected job opportunities were not always readily available. It was a follow-on to the unofficial Big Brother Movement and attracted over one million migrants from the British Isles between 1945 and 1972, representing the last substantial scheme for preferential migration from the British Isles to Australia. In 1957, more migrants were encouraged to travel following a campaign called "Bring out a Briton". Coming to an end in 1982, the scheme reached its peak in 1969; during this year over 80,000 migrants took advantage of the scheme. The cost to migrants of the assisted passage was increased to £75 in 1973 (equivalent to £891 in 2018).
While the term "Ten Pound Pom" is in common use, the scheme was not limited to migrants from the United Kingdom. Persons born in the Irish Free State or in the southern counties of Ireland prior to the establishment of the Republic of Ireland in 1949 were also classified as British subjects. In fact most British subjects were eligible and, at the time, that included not only those from the British Isles but also residents of British colonies such as Malta and Cyprus. Australia also operated schemes to assist selected migrants from other countries, notably the Netherlands (1951), Italy (1951), Greece (1952), West Germany (1952) and Turkey (1967).
Assisted migrants were generally obliged to remain in Australia for two years after arrival, or alternatively refund the cost of their assisted passage. If they chose to travel back to Britain, the cost of the journey was at least £120 (in 1945 pounds, equivalent to £5,087 in 2018), a large sum in those days and one that most could not afford. It was also possible for many British people to migrate to Australia on a non-assisted basis before the early 1970s, although most travelled as Ten Pounders. This was part of the wider White Australia policy. An estimated quarter of those British migrants returned to the UK within the qualifying period, however, half of these—the so-called "Boomerang Poms"—returned to Australia.
Before 1 December 1973, migrants to Australia from Commonwealth countries were eligible to apply for Australian citizenship after one year's residence in Australia. In 1973 the residence requirement was extended to three years, then reduced to two years in November 1984. However, relatively few British migrants—compared to other post-war arrivals, such as Italians, Greeks and Turks—took up Australian citizenship. Consequently, many may have lost their Australian residency status later on, usually through leaving Australia.
New Zealand scheme
The Government of New Zealand initiated a similar immigration scheme in July 1947. The first immigrants arrived on the RMS Rangitata later that year. The scheme was administered by the Department of Labour under the guidance of Bert Bockett, and was expanded to include the Netherlands in 1950. The Dutch immigration scheme finished in 1963, with just over 6,000 immigrants to New Zealand; with Bockett receiving the Olivier van Noort medallion from the Dutch government in the following year. The British immigration scheme lasted until 1971, with 76,673 immigrants. From 1957 to 1971, the scheme applied to further European countries, with a total of 1,442 immigrants.
Another Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, migrated in 1960 under the scheme, although his father had already lived in Australia after arriving at the beginning of the Second World War on a Blue Funnel Liner, and his mother was an Australian expatriate living in Britain at the time of his birth.
The Bee Gees (Gibb brothers) spent their first few years in Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester, England, then moved in the late 1950s to Redcliffe in Queensland, where they began their musical careers.
The five original members of the Easybeats migrated independently to meet in Sydney and take Australia by storm with 'Easyfever'. Lead singer Stevie Wright migrated from Leeds, England. Meanwhile, Harry Vanda migrated from the Hague, Netherlands and George Young migrated from Glasgow, Scotland to become the twin guitars and later the songwriting team that took the Easybeats to the world with "Friday on My Mind". George's younger brothers Malcolm Young and Angus Young formed the twin guitars of AC/DC, with another immigrated Scotsman Bon Scott who, after his death, was replaced by UK transplant Brian Johnson (not an assisted passage participant). Malcolm (after being diagnosed with a severe memory loss disorder) was replaced by nephew Stevie Young, who had travelled on the same flight to Australia in 1963 as his uncles George, Malcolm and Angus.
- The Feldons' song "Win One Time" off their 2012 album Goody Hallett and Other Stories refers to Ten Pound Poms, as the writer's father-in-law was in fact one
- White Australia Policy
- The book "My Mother Said...A Liverpool-Irish Memoir" has some further information in its back few pages.
- "New generation of Ten Pound Poms". BBC News Channel. BBC. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "Post World War II British Migration to Australia". Museums Victoria Collections. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Ten Pound Poms". Immigration Museum, State of Victoria. 10 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Ten Pound Poms". The University of Sussex at Brighton. Retrieved 16 March 2006.
- Matthews, Lisa (31 January 2008). "The £10 ticket to another life". BBC Timewatch. BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Hale, Beth (5 August 2009). "Return of the Ten Pound Poms: Bargain-hunters sleep on the street in race to get a cheap one-way ticket to Australia". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- British nationality law and the Republic of Ireland
- "Immigration to Australia During the 20th Century – Historical Impacts on Immigration Intake, Population Size and Population Composition – A Timeline" (PDF). Australian Government, Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Peopling New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Assisted immigration resumes after war". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Martin, John E. "Herbert Leslie Bockett". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Leaving the grey UK". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Profile: Julia Gillard". BBC News. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "North Coast Voices: In 1960 the Menzies Government decided to inflict Master Anthony John Abbott on the nation". Northcoastvoices.blogspot.com.au. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Keating, Frank (28 April 2010). "Harold Larwood's low-key leaving of England went almost unnoticed". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
- "Famous Ten Pound Poms". Ten Pound Pom. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
A. James Hammerton and Alistair Thomson, Ten pound Poms: Australia's invisible migrants, Manchester University Press, Manchester and New York, 2005.