The Tudor navy was the navy of the Kingdom of England under the ruling Tudor dynasty (1485–1603). The period involved important and critical changes that led to the establishment of a permanent navy and laid the foundations for the future Royal Navy.
Henry VII fostered sea power. He supported the old 1381 act that stated "that, to increase the navy of England, no goods or merchandises shall be either exported or imported, but only in ships belonging to the King's subjects." Although there is no evidence for a conscious change of policy, Henry soon embarked on a program of building merchant ships larger than heretofore. He also invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, with Sweepstake the first ship built there.
Biographer Jack Scarisbrick says that Henry VIII (reigned 1509–1547) deserved his traditional title of "Father of the English navy". He inherited seven small warships from his father, and added two dozen more by 1514. In addition to those built in England, he bought up Italian and Hanseatic warships. By March 1513, he proudly watched his fleet sail down the Thames under command of Sir Edmund Howard. It was the most powerful naval force to date in English history: 24 ships led by the 1600 ton "Henry Imperial"; the fleet carried 5000 combat marines and 3000 sailors. It forced the outnumbered French fleet back to its ports, took control of the English Channel, and blockaded Brest. Henry was the first king to organize the navy as a permanent force, with a permanent administrative and logistical structure, funded by tax revenue and supervised by the new Navy Board. His personal attention was concentrated on land, where he founded the royal dockyards, planted trees for shipbuilding, enacted laws for inland navigation, guarded the coastline with fortifications, set up a school for navigation and designated the roles of officers and sailors. He closely supervised the construction of all his warships and their guns, knowing their designs, speed, tonnage, armaments and battle tactics. He encouraged his naval architects, who perfected the Italian technique of mounting guns in the waist of the ship, thus lowering the center of gravity and making it a better platform. He supervised the smallest details and enjoyed nothing more than presiding over the launching of a new ship. He drained his treasury on military and naval affairs, diverting the revenues from new taxes and the sales of monastery lands.
In 1512 Sir Edward Howard took over as Lord Admiral, and attacked on 10 August at Pointe Saint-Mathieu, with inconclusive results despite a memorable slugging match between the English Regent and the French Cordelière resulting in the destruction of both. Additional combat in 1513 resulted in the death of Sir Edward, and his brother Thomas Howard took his place. In 1514 the 1,500-ton carrack Henry Grace à Dieu was launched, the first English two-decker and one of the earliest warships equipped with gunports and heavy bronze cannons. Henry also commissioned the Anthony Roll (now in the Pepys Library), a survey of his navy as it was around 1546, from which comes much of the pictorial evidence for his ships.
Henry VIII initiated the casting of cannon in England. By the late Elizabethan age (see the Aldernay wreck survey) English iron workers using blast furnaces developed the technique of producing cast iron cannons which, while not as durable as the prevailing bronze cannons, they were much cheaper and enabled England to arm its navy more easily.
In the end, the chief result of the war with France was a decision to keep the 30 ships active during peacetime. This entailed the establishment of a number of shore facilities, and the hiring of additional administrators; a royal shipwright appears in 1538. By 1540 the navy consisted of 45 ships, and in 1545 Lord Lisle had a force of 80 ships fighting a French force of 130 attempting to invade England in conjunction with the Battle of the Solent (where the Mary Rose sank). In the same year a memorandum established a "king's majesty's council of his marine", a first formal organization comprising seven officers, each in charge of a specific area, presided over by "Lieutenant of the Admiralty" or Vice-Admiral Thomas Clere. When war was not at hand the Navy was mostly occupied in chasing pirates.
Historian G.R. Elton argues that Henry indeed build up the organization and infrastructure of the Navy, but it was not a useful weapon for his style of warfare. It lacked a useful strategy. It did serve for defense against invasion, and for enhancing England's international prestige.
Edward and Mary
Edward VI and Mary I added little new to their father's navy. Although the navy was involved in the maneuverings following the death of Henry VIII, it was ineffective. Mary maintained the building program, the navy performed satisfactorily if not outstandingly (it did not prevent the loss of Calais) in the war with France of 1557 to 1559. However, the marriage of Mary I and Philip II led to trade with Spain, allowing English shipwrights to examine and adapt modern Spanish galleon design to the needs of the English Navy as English ports were soon visited by both Spanish warships and merchantmen. This would later prove crucial to the growth and development of the race-built galleon and the Elizabethan Navy that would obtain some triumphs against the Spanish Armada during the war between Protestant England and Catholic Spain.
While Henry VIII had launched the Royal Navy, his successors King Edward VI and Queen Mary I had ignored it and it was little more than a system of coastal defense. Elizabeth made naval strength a high priority. She risked war with Spain by supporting the "Sea Dogs," such as John Hawkins and Francis Drake, who preyed on the Spanish merchant ships carrying gold and silver from the New World.
A fleet review on Elizabeth I's accession in 1559 showed the navy to consist of 39 ships, and there were plans to build another 30, to be grouped into five categories (a foreshadowing of the rating system). Elizabeth kept the navy at a constant expenditure for the next 20 years, and maintained a steady construction rate.
By the 1580s, tensions with Spain had reached the breaking point, exacerbated by Elizabeth's support for the privateering expeditions of Hawkins, Drake, and others, and capped by the Cadiz raid of 1587, in which Drake destroyed dozens of Spanish ships. In 1588, Philip II of Spain launched the Spanish Armada against England, but after a running battle lasting over a week, the Armada was scattered and limped home. These famous battles were early actions in the long and costly Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604.
The Navy yards were leaders in technical innovation, and the captains devised new tactics. Parker (1996) argues that the full-rigged ship was one of the greatest technological advances of the century and permanently transformed naval warfare. In 1573 English shipwrights introduced designs, first demonstrated in the Dreadnought, that allowed the ships to sail faster and maneuver better and permitted heavier guns. Whereas before warships had tried to grapple with each other so that soldiers could board the enemy ship, now they stood off and fired broadsides that would sink the enemy vessel. When Spain finally decided to invade and conquer England it was a fiasco. Superior English ships and seamanship foiled the invasion and led to the destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588, marking the high point of Elizabeth's reign. Technically, the Armada failed because Spain's over-complex strategy required coordination between the invasion fleet and the Spanish army on shore. But the poor design of the Spanish cannons meant they were much slower in reloading in a close-range battle, allowing the English to take control. Spain and France still had stronger fleets, but England was catching up.
Key officials from 1485 to 1546
Officers from 1485 to 1546 included:
- John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford, 1485-1512
- Sir Edward Howard, 1512-1513
- Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, 1513-1525
- Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, 1525-1536
- William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton, 1536-1540
- John Russell, 1st Lord Russell, 1540-1542
- John Dudley, 1st Viscount Lisle, 1542-1546
- Thomas Rogers, 12 December 1480 d.1488
- William Commersall, 1488-18 May 1495
- Robert Brygandine, 19 May 1495 – 1523
- Thomas Jermyn, and William Gonson, 1523-1533, (jointly)
- Leonard Thoreton 1533-1538
- Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Spert, 1538-1543
- Edmund Wynter, 1544-1545
- John Wynter 1545- d. 1546
- John Hopton, 1512-1524
- Vice-Admiral, Sir Thomas Spert, 1524-1540
- John Osborne, 1540-1545
- William Broke, 1545-1561
- Keeper of the Storehouses
Key officials from 1546 to 1603
- Officers from 1546 to 1603
- Lord High Admirals of England
- Thomas Seymour, 1st Lord Seymour of Sudeley, 1546-1549
- John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, 1549-1550
- Edward Clinton, 9th Lord Clinton, 1550-1554
- William Howard, 1st Lord Howard of Effingham, 1554-1558
- Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln, 1558-1585
- Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 1585-1603
- Lieutenants of the Admiralty
Note:(post is vacant till 1604)
- Treasurers of Marine Causes
- Sir Robert Legge, 1546-1549
- Benjamin Gonson, 1549-1547
- Benjamin Gonson and Sir John Hawkins, 1549-1577
- Sir John Hawkins, 1577-1595
- Sir Roger Longford, 1595-1598
- Sir Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke, 1595-1603
- Surveyors and Riggers of the Navy
- Benjamin Gonson 24 April 1546
- Vice-Admiral, Sir Thomas Spert, 1524-1540
- Vice Admiral Sir William Wynter 8 July 1549 (also Master of Naval Ordnance)
- Sir Henry Palmer 11 July 1589.
- Sir John Trevor 20 December 1598 -1603.
- Vice-Admiral,Sir William Woodhouse, 1546-1552
- Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Wyndham, 1552-1553
- Vice Admiral Sir William Wynter 1557-1589 (also Surveyor)
Note:Office is discontinued after 1589.
- William Broke, 1545-1561
- Vice-Admiral, William Holstocke, 1561–1580
- William Borough, 1580–1598
- Sir Henry Palmer 1598–1603
Note: (office is merged with Treasurer of the Navy)
- Clerk of the Navy (also known as Clerk of the Ships)
- Richard Howlett, 24 April 1546- 10 October 1560.
- George Wynter, 10 October 1560 – 2 June 1567.
- John Hawkins, 2 June 1567, (appointed but did not succeed).
- George Wynter, 2 June 1567 – 24 March 1582.
- William B. B. Gonson, 24 March 1582 – 6 July 1596.
- Benjamin Gonson, 6 July 1596 – 17 April 1603.
Important though this period was, it represents a soon-lost high point. After 1601 the efficiency of the Navy declined gradually, while corruption grew until brought under control in an inquiry of 1618.
- Admiralty in the 16th century
- English Armada
- History of the Royal Navy#1500-1601
- Navy Board
- William Winter (admiral)
- Chapter III - The Commercial Policy of England Toward the American Colonies: the Acts of Trade, in Emory R. Johnson, T. W. Van Metre, G. G. Huebner, D. S. Hanchett, History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States - Vol. 1, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915. In Questia
- Arthur Nelson, The Tudor navy: the ships, men and organisation, 1485-1603 (2001) p. 36
- J.J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII (1968) pp 500-1.
- C. S. L. Davies, "The Administration of the Royal Navy under Henry VIII: the origins of the Navy Board." English Historical Review 80.315 (1965): 268-288. in JSTOR
- A.F. Pollard, Henry VIII (1902) pp 50, 100-2.
- N.A.M. Rodger, The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660 – 1649 (1997) pp 184, 221 236-7
- David Loades, The Tudor Navy: An administrative, political and military history (1992) is the standard history.
- Elaine W. Fowler, English sea power in the early Tudor period, 1485-1558 (1965) is an older study.
- G.R. Elton, Reform and Reformation: England, 1509-1558 (1977) pp 309-10.
- Julian S. Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy, With a History of the Rise of England as a Maritime Power (2 vol 1898) online
- Geoffrey Parker, "The 'Dreadnought' Revolution of Tudor England," Mariner's Mirror, Aug 1996, Vol. 82 Issue 3, pp 269-300
- Colin Martin and Geoffrey Parker, The Spanish Armada (1999) p 140
- Geoffrey Parker, "Why the Armada Failed," History Today, May 1988, Vol. 38 Issue 5, pp 26-33
- Childs, David (2009). Tudor Sea Power: The Foundation of Greatness. Seaforth Publishing. p. 298. ISBN 9781473819924.
- Corbett, Julian S. Drake and the Tudor Navy, With a History of the Rise of England as a Maritime Power (2 vol 1898) online
- Glasgow, Tom. "Vice Admiral Woodhouse and ship keeping the Tudor navy," Mariner's Mirror, 63 (1977), pp 253–63
- Konstam, Angus, Sovereigns of the Sea: The Quest to Build the Perfect Renaissance Battleship Wiley. 2008. ISBN 0-470-11667-6
- Loades, David, The Tudor Navy: An administrative, political and military history. Scolar Press, Aldershot. 1992. ISBN 0-85967-922-5
- Loades, David. The Making of the Elizabethan Navy, 1540-1590: From the Solent to the Armada (2009)
- Nelson, Arthur. The Tudor navy: the ships, men and organisation, 1485-1603 (2001)
- Parker, Geoffrey. "The dreadnought revolution of Tudor England." The Mariner's Mirror 82.3 (1996): 269-300.
- Rodger, Nicholas A. M., The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660–1649. W.W. Norton & Company, New York. 1997. ISBN 0-393-04579-X
- Rodger, Nicholas A. M., "The Development of Broadside Gunnery, 1450–1650." Mariner's Mirror 82 (1996), pp. 301–24.
- Knighton, C. S. and David Loades, eds. The navy of Edward VI and Mary I (2011) 652pp of original documents