|Tutankhamen, Tutankhaten, Tutankhamon, possibly Nibhurrereya (as referenced in the Amarna letters)|
Wooden bust of the boy king, found in his tomb
|Reign||c. 1332–1323 BC, New Kingdom (18th Dynasty)|
|Consort||Ankhesenamun (half-sister and cousin)|
|Children||Two stillborn daughters|
|Mother||"The Younger Lady"|
|Born||c. 1341 BC|
|Died||c. 1323 BC (aged c. 18 or 19)|
Tutankhamun (//; alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen,[a] -amon; c. 1341 – c. 1323 BC) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut. His original name, Tutankhaten, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was typically written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, and likely the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome.
The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, funded by Lord Carnarvon, received worldwide press coverage. It sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol. Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of the mummy found in the tomb KV55, believed by some to be Akhenaten. His mother was his father's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The deaths of a few involved in the discovery of Tutankhamun's mummy have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs.
Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or possibly one of his cousins. As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure. His wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem.
When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, neither of whom survived infancy. Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter was born prematurely at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at full-term, 9 months. The daughter born at 9 months gestation had spina bifida, scoliosis, and Sprengel's deformity (a condition affecting the placement of the scapula).
Given his age, the king probably had very powerful advisers, presumably including General Horemheb (Grand Vizier Ay's possible son in law and successor) and Grand Vizier Ay (who succeeded Tutankhamun). Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.
In his third regnal year, under the influence of his advisors, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood. The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun.
As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods". The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull, Horemakhet, and Opet. His restoration stela says:
The temples of the gods and goddesses ... were in ruins. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads ... the gods turned their backs upon this land ... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond.
The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes. His tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, and bows, and he was trained in archery. However, given his youth (he died c. age 18) and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk, most historians speculate that he did not personally take part in these battles.
Health and appearance
Tutankhamun was slight of build, and roughly 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) tall. He had large front incisors and an overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project. The research showed that Tutankhamun also had "a slightly cleft palate" and possibly a mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the spine deviates to the side from the normal position. X-rays clearly show that the king suffered from Klippel–Feil syndrome, the congenital fusion of any two of the cervical vertebrae. All seven vertebrae in his neck were completely fused together, so he was unable to move his head. Examination of Tutankhamun's body has also revealed deformations in his left foot, caused by necrosis of bone tissue. The affliction may have forced Tutankhamun to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb. In DNA tests of Tutankhamun's mummy, scientists found DNA from the mosquito-borne parasites that cause malaria. This is currently the oldest known genetic proof of the disease. More than one strain of the malaria parasite was found, indicating that Tutankhamun contracted multiple malarial infections. According to National Geographic, "The malaria would have weakened Tutankhamun's immune system and interfered with the healing of his foot. These factors, combined with the fracture in his left thighbone, which scientists had discovered in 2005, may have ultimately been what killed the young king."
In 2008, a team began DNA research on Tutankhamun and the mummified remains of other members of his family. The results indicated that his father was Akhenaten, and that his mother was not one of Akhenaten's known wives but one of his father's five sisters. The techniques used in the study, however, have been questioned. The team reported it was over 99.99 percent certain that Amenhotep III was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun. The young king's mother was found through the DNA testing of a mummy designated as 'The Younger Lady' (KV35YL), which was found lying beside Queen Tiye in the alcove of KV35. Her DNA proved that, like his father, she was a child of Amenhotep III and Tiye; thus, Tutankhamun's parents were brother and sister. Queen Tiye held much political influence at court and acted as an adviser to her son after the death of her husband. Some geneticists dispute these findings, however, and "complain that the team used inappropriate analysis techniques."
While the data are still incomplete, the study suggests that one of the mummified fetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb is the daughter of Tutankhamun himself, and the other fetus is probably his child as well. So far, only partial data for the two female mummies from KV21 has been obtained. One of them, KV21A, may be the infants' mother, and, thus, Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun. It is known from history that she was the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, and thus likely to be her husband's half-sister. One consequence of inbreeding can be children whose genetic defects do not allow them to be brought to term.
There are no surviving records of Tutankhamun's final days. What caused Tutankhamun's death has been the subject of considerable debate. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death. There is some evidence, advanced by Harvard microbiologist Ralph Mitchell, that his burial may have been hurried. Mitchell reported that dark brown splotches on the decorated walls of Tutankhamun's burial chamber suggested that he had been entombed even before the paint had a chance to dry.
Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental. A CT scan taken in 2005 showed that he had suffered a compound left leg fracture shortly before his death, and that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system, leading to the belief that malaria and Köhler disease II combined led to his death.
In June 2010, German scientists said that they believed there was evidence that he had died of sickle cell disease. Other experts, however, rejected the hypothesis of homozygous sickle cell disease based on survival beyond the age of 5 and the location of the osteonecrosis, which is characteristic of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome rather than sickle-cell disease. Research conducted in 2005 by archaeologists, radiologists, and geneticists, who performed CT scans on the mummy, found that he was not killed by a blow to the head, as previously thought. New CT images discovered congenital flaws, which are more common among the children of incest. Siblings are more likely to pass on twin copies of deleterious alleles, which is why children of incest more commonly manifest genetic defects. It is suspected he also had a partially cleft palate, another congenital defect.
Various other diseases, invoked as possible explanations to his early demise, included Marfan syndrome, Wilson-Turner X-linked mental retardation syndrome, Fröhlich syndrome (adiposogenital dystrophy), Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, aromatase excess syndrome in conjunction with sagittal craniosynostosis syndrome, Antley–Bixler syndrome or one of its variants, and temporal lobe epilepsy.
A research team, consisting of Egyptian scientists Yehia Gad and Somaia Ismail from the National Research Centre in Cairo, conducted further CT scans under the direction of Ashraf Selim and Sahar Saleem of the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University. Three international experts served as consultants: Carsten Pusch of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Germany; Albert Zink of the EURAC-Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy; and Paul Gostner of the Central Hospital Bolzano. STR analysis based DNA fingerprinting analysis combined with the other techniques have rejected the hypothesis of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (e.g., Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun's. However, their exact contribution to the causality of his death still is highly debated.
As stated above, the team discovered DNA from several strains of a parasite, proving that he was repeatedly infected with the most severe strain of malaria, several times in his short life. Malaria can trigger circulatory shock or cause a fatal immune response in the body, either of which can lead to death. If Tutankhamun did suffer from a bone disease which was crippling, it may not have been fatal. "Perhaps he struggled against other [congenital flaws] until a severe bout of malaria or a leg broken in an accident added one strain too many to a body that could no longer carry the load", wrote Zahi Hawass, archeologist and head of Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquity involved in the research.
A review of the medical findings to date found that he suffered from mild kyphoscoliosis, pes planus (flat feet), hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of the second and third metatarsal bones of the left foot, malaria, and a complex bone fracture of the right knee, which occurred shortly before his death.
In late 2013, Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton and scientists from the Cranfield Institute performed a "virtual autopsy" of Tutankhamun, revealing a pattern of injuries down one side of his body. Car-crash investigators then created computer simulations of chariot accidents. Naunton concluded that Tutankhamun was killed in a chariot crash: a chariot smashed into him while he was on his knees, shattering his ribs and pelvis. Naunton also referenced Howard Carter's records of the body having been burnt. Working with anthropologist Dr. Robert Connolly and forensic archaeologist Dr. Matthew Ponting, Naunton produced evidence that Tutankhamun's body was burnt while sealed inside his coffin. Embalming oils combined with oxygen and linen had caused a chemical reaction, creating temperatures of more than . Naunton said, "The charring and possibility that a botched mummification led to the body spontaneously combusting shortly after burial was entirely unexpected." 200 °C
A further investigation, in 2014, revealed that it was unlikely he had been killed in a chariot accident. Scans found that all but one of his bone fractures, including those to his skull, had been inflicted after his death. The scans also showed that he had a partially clubbed foot and would have been unable to stand unaided, thus making it unlikely he ever rode in a chariot; this was supported by the presence of many walking sticks among the contents of his tomb. Instead, it is believed that genetic defects arising from his parents being siblings, complications from a broken leg and his suffering from malaria, together caused his death.
However, various orthopaedic doctors, such as Dr. James Gamble, stated that while Tutankhamun's foot is indeed in a twisted position, the individual bones of the left foot are perfectly normal, ruling out the possibility of him having a clubfoot; Dr. Gamble himself believes that the twisted position of the left foot is actually the result of mummification. Robert Connolly, a member of Ronald Harrison's team that x-rayed the mummy in 1969, argued that the left foot was "perfectly normal" when it was x-rayed, arguing that the damage could have been inflicted sometime after the 1969 xx-ray. Other experts have stated that idea that Tutankhamun possessing necrosis is highly unlikely, pointing out that the embalming materials applied to the body could have slowly eaten away at the bone over time. Likewise, Egyptologists, such as Dr. Marianne Eaton-Krauss, argue that the diagnosis of Tutankhamun being disabled on the account of possessing so many walking sticks is "aggravating" due to the fact that staffs and staves were a sign of prestige in Ancient Egypt, and were typically used, not as a crutch, but instead in hunting, hand-to-hand combat and to handle snakes. Several experts, such as Dr. Eline Lorenzen, argue that Ancient Egyptian DNA does not always survive to a level that's easily retrievable and question the validity and reliability of the genetic data that is collected from Ancient Egyptian sources. Dr. Benson Harer argues that most of the injuries inflicted upon Tutankhamun had to have happened prior and during mummification, due to a test he performed upon dried bones that crumbled when he attempted to cut them, ruling out that Tutankhamun's chest had been cut by Carter or anyone after him. Several experts, such as Dr. Robert Connolly, Ashraj Selim, and Dr. Zahi Hawass, all support the notion that King Tutankhamun died as the result of an accident, whether it be from hunting or chariot crash. Both Connolly and Hawass believe that Tutankhamun died suddenly away from home and had to be rushed back for mummification. Dr. Jo Marchant, a historian, admits in her book "The Shadow King" that she too, personally believes that Pharaoh Tutankhamun died as the result of an accident, stating that all the evidence suggests that Tutankhamn had been a young man who must have taken one risk too many and ended his life early, also stating that the accident theory supports all of the oddities surrounding Tutankhamun's mummification and burial; she likewise points out that many scientists agree that while Ashraj Selim and his team are wonderful and skilled radiologists, they are not experienced in examining ancient mummies, and therefore cannot easily diagnose an ancient mummy.
With the death of Tutankhamun and the two stillborn children buried with him, the Thutmoside family line came to an end. The Amarna letters indicate that Tutankhamun's wife, recently widowed, wrote to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I, asking if she could marry one of his sons. The letters do not say how Tutankhamun died. In the message, Ankhesenamun says that she was very afraid, but would not take one of her own people as husband. However, the son was killed before reaching his new wife. Shortly afterward, Ay married Tutankhamun's widow and became Pharaoh as a war was fought between the two countries, and Egypt was left defeated. The fate of Ankhesenamun is not known, but she disappears from record and Ay's second wife Tey became Great Royal Wife. After Ay's death, Horemheb usurped the throne and instigated a campaign of damnatio memoriae against him. Tutankhamun's father Akhenaten, stepmother Nefertiti, his wife Ankhesenamun, half sisters and other family members were also included. Not even Tutankhamun was spared. His images and cartouches were also erased. Horemheb himself was left childless and willed the throne to Paramessu, who founded the Ramesside family line of pharaohs.
Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became Pharaoh, and he reigned for about ten years. Tutankhamun is historically significant because his reign was near the apogee of Egypt as a world power and because he rejected the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor and father, Akhenaten. Secondly, his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered by Carter almost completely intact—the most complete ancient Egyptian royal tomb found. As Tutankhamun began his reign so young, his vizier and eventual successor, Ay, was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamun's reign.
Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime. A stela discovered at Karnak and dedicated to Amun-Ra and Tutankhamun indicates that the king could be appealed to in his deified state for forgiveness and to free the petitioner from an ailment caused by sin. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult.
Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was unusually small considering his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, causing his mummy to be buried in a tomb intended for someone else. This would preserve the observance of the customary 70 days between death and burial.
In 1915, George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, the financial backer of the search for and the excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, employed English archaeologist Howard Carter to explore it. After a systematic search, Carter discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun (KV62) in November 1922, and unsealed the burial chamber on 16 February 1923.
Tutankhamun's mummy still rests in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. On 4 November 2007, 85 years to the day after Carter's discovery, the 19-year-old pharaoh went on display in his underground tomb at Luxor, when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box. The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.
His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial.
Eventually, the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly without anyone's knowing what lay beneath. When the Valley of the Kings burial sites were systematically dismantled at the end of the 20th Dynasty, Tutankhamun's tomb was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost, and his name may have been forgotten.
5,398 items were found in the tomb, including a solid gold coffin, face mask, thrones, archery bows, trumpets, a lotus chalice, food, wine, sandals, and fresh linen underwear. Howard Carter took 10 years to catalog the items. Recent analysis suggests a dagger recovered from the tomb had an iron blade made from a meteorite; study of artifacts of the time including other artifacts from Tutankhamun's tomb could provide valuable insights into metalworking technologies around the Mediterranean at the time.
According to Nicholas Reeves, almost 80% of Tutankhamun's burial equipment originated from the female pharaoh Neferneferuaten's funerary goods including his famous gold mask, middle coffin, canopic coffinettes, several of the gilded shrine panels, the shabti-figures, the boxes and chests, the royal jewelry, etc. In 2015, Reeves published evidence showing that an earlier cartouche on Tutankhamun's famous gold mask read "Ankheperure mery-Neferkheperure" (Ankheperure beloved of Akhenaten); therefore, the mask was originally made for Nefertiti, Akhenaten's chief queen, who used the royal name Ankheperure when she most likely assumed the throne after her husband's death.
This development implies that either Neferneferuaten (likely Nefertiti if she assumed the throne after Akhenaten's death) was deposed in a struggle for power, possibly deprived of a royal burial—and buried as a Queen—or that she was buried with a different set of king's funerary equipment—possibly Akhenaten's own funerary equipment by Tutankhamun's officials since Tutankhamun succeeded her as king. Neferneferuaten was likely succeeded by Tutankhamun based on the presence of her funerary goods in his tomb.
There was strong suspicion in 2015 that in the north wall of Tutankhamun's tomb chamber was a doorway, blocked and hidden by decorated plaster, leading to another chamber, which was purported to possibly contain a burial of Nefertiti.
In January 2019, it was announced that the tomb would re-open to visitors after nine years of restoration.
For many years, rumors of a "curse of the pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb. The most prominent was George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon who died on 5 April 1923, 5 months after the discovery of the first step leading down to the tomb on 4 November 1922.
A study of documents and scholarly sources led The Lancet to conclude as unlikely that Carnarvon's death had anything to do with Tutankhamun's tomb, whether due to a curse or exposure to toxic fungi (mycotoxins). The cause of Carnarvon's death was pneumonia supervening on [facial] erysipelas (a streptococcal infection of the skin and underlying soft tissue). Pneumonia was thought to be only one of various complications, arising from the progressively invasive infection, that eventually resulted in multiorgan failure." The Earl had been "prone to frequent and severe lung infections" according to The Lancet and there had been a "general belief ... that one acute attack of bronchitis could have killed him. In such a debilitated state, the Earl's immune system was easily overwhelmed by erysipelas".
A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years. All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who died of lymphoma in 1939 at the age of 64. The last survivors included Lady Evelyn Herbert, Lord Carnarvon's daughter who was among the first people to enter the tomb after its discovery in November 1922, who lived for a further 57 years and died in 1980, and American archaeologist J.O. Kinnaman who died in 1961, 39 years after the event.
If Tutankhamun is the world's best known pharaoh, it is largely because his tomb is among the best preserved, and his image and associated artifacts the most exhibited. As Jon Manchip White writes, in his foreword to the 1977 edition of Carter's The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, "The pharaoh who in life was one of the least esteemed of Egypt's Pharaohs has become in death the most renowned."
The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the 1920s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism, "King Tut". Ancient Egyptian references became common in popular culture, including Tin Pan Alley songs; the most popular of the latter was "Old King Tut" by Harry Von Tilzer from 1923, which was recorded by such prominent artists of the time as Jones & Hare and Sophie Tucker. "King Tut" became the name of products, businesses, and even the pet dog of U.S. President Herbert Hoover.
Relics from Tutankhamun's tomb are among the most traveled artifacts in the world. They have been to many countries, but probably the best-known exhibition tour was The Treasures of Tutankhamun tour, which ran from 1972 to 1979. This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September 1972. More than 1.6 million visitors saw the exhibition, some queuing for up to eight hours. It remains the most popular exhibition in the Museum's history. The exhibition moved on to many other countries, including the United States, Soviet Union, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. The Metropolitan Museum of Art organized the U.S. exhibition, which ran from 17 November 1976 through 15 April 1979. More than eight million attended.
In 2004, the tour of Tutankhamun funerary objects entitled Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter, consisting of fifty artifacts from Tutankhamun's tomb and seventy funerary goods from other 18th Dynasty tombs, began in Basel, Switzerland and went on to Bonn, Germany, on the second leg of the tour. This European tour was organised by the Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), and the Egyptian Museum in cooperation with the Antikenmuseum Basel and Sammlung Ludwig. Deutsche Telekom sponsored the Bonn exhibition.
In 2005, Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partnership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the National Geographic Society, launched a tour of Tutankhamun treasures and other 18th Dynasty funerary objects, this time called Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. It featured the same exhibits as Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter in a slightly different format. It was expected to draw more than three million people.
The exhibition started in Los Angeles, then moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Chicago and Philadelphia. The exhibition then moved to London before finally returning to Egypt in August 2008. An encore of the exhibition in the United States ran at the Dallas Museum of Art from October 2008 to May 2009. The tour continued to other U.S. cities. After Dallas the exhibition moved to the de Young Museum in San Francisco, followed by the Discovery Times Square Exposition in New York City.
In 2011, the exhibition visited Australia for the first time, opening at the Melbourne Museum in April for its only Australian stop before Egypt's treasures returned to Cairo in December 2011.
The exhibition included 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamun's immediate predecessors in the Eighteenth dynasty, such as Hatshepsut, whose trade policies greatly increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavish wealth of Tutankhamun's burial artifacts, as well as 50 from Tutankhamun's tomb. The exhibition does not include the gold mask that was a feature of the 1972–1979 tour, as the Egyptian government has decided that damage which occurred to previous artifacts on tours precludes this one from joining them.
A separate exhibition called Tutankhamun and the World of the Pharaohs began at the Ethnological Museum in Vienna from 9 March to 28 September 2008, showing a further 140 treasures. Renamed Tutankhamun: The Golden King and the Great Pharaohs, the exhibition toured the US and Canada from November 2008 to 6 January 2013.
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
Neferhepusegerehtawy Werahamun Nebrdjer
One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands; Great of the palace of Amun; Lord of all
|Golden Horus name||
Wetjeskhausehetepnetjeru Heqamaatsehetepnetjeru Wetjeskhauitefre Wetjeskhautjestawyim
Who wears crowns and pleases the gods; Ruler of Truth, who pleases the gods; Who wears the crowns of his father, Re; Who wears crowns, and binds the two lands therein
| 𓇓𓆤 𓍹𓇳𓆣𓏥𓎟𓍺|
Lord of the forms of Re
|Son of Re||
Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis
At the reintroduction of traditional religious practice, his name changed. It is transliterated as twt-ꜥnḫ-ỉmn ḥqꜣ-ỉwnw-šmꜥ, and according to modern Egyptological convention is written Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema, meaning "Living image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis". On his ascension to the throne, Tutankhamun took a prenomen. This is transliterated as nb-ḫprw-rꜥ, and, again, according to modern Egyptological convention is written Nebkheperure, meaning "Lord of the forms of Re". The name Nibhurrereya (𒉌𒅁𒄷𒊑𒊑𒅀) in the Amarna letters may be closer to how his prenomen was actually pronounced.
|KV55, possibly Akhenaten||The Younger Lady|
- Mask of Tutankhamun
- Tutankhamun's mummy
- Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger
- Tutankhamun's trumpets
- Anubis Shrine
- Clayton, Peter A. (2006). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9.
- Paul Schemm (16 February 2010). "Frail boy-king Tut died from malaria, broken leg". Associated Press. Archived 27 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Tutankhamun or Tutankhamen". Collins English Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Zauzich, Karl-Theodor (1992). Hieroglyphs Without Mystery. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-292-79804-5.
- "Manetho's King List".
- "The Egyptian Exhibition at Highclere Castle". Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Hawass, Zahi A. The golden age of Tutankhamun: divine might and splendor in the New Kingdom. American Univ in Cairo Press, 2004.
- Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 303 (7): 638–647. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "Digging up trouble: beware the curse of King Tutankhamun". The Guardian.
- Hawass, Zahi; et al. (17 February 2010). "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 303 (7): 640–641. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Powell, Alvin (12 February 2013). "A different take on Tut". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Jacobus van Dijk. "The Death of Meketaten" (PDF). p. 7. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
- "Classroom TUTorials: The Many Names of King Tutankhamun" (pdf). Michael C. Carlos Museum. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- "Egypt Update: Rare Tomb May Have Been Destroyed". Science Mag. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Hawass, Zahi and Saleem, Sahar N. "Mummified daughters of King Tutankhamun: Archaeological and CT studies." The American Journal of Roentgenology 2011. Vol 197, No. 5, pp. W829–836.
- "Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt".
- Booth 2007, pp. 86–87.
- Erik Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Translated by David Lorton, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8014-8725-0.
- Hart, George (1990). Egyptian Myths. University of Texas Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-292-72076-3.
- Gilbert, Holt & Hudson 1976, pp. 28–9.
- Booth 2007, pp. 129–30.
- Channel 5 (UK), 24 March 2018: King Tut's Treasure Secrets, part 1 of 3
- "Radiologists Attempt To Solve Mystery Of Tut's Demise" from ScienceDaily.com
- Handwerk, Brian (8 March 2005). "King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show". National Geographic News. p. 2. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- The Medical Dictionary: CSI Egypt: who killed King Tut? Detectives use modern science to solve a 3,300-year-old murder mystery – Special Report, 2003
- "King Tut Was Disabled, Malarial, and Inbred, DNA Shows". nationalgeographic.com.
- Nature 472, 404–6 (2011); Published online 27 April 2011; Original link
- NewScientist.com; January 2011; Royal Rumpus over King Tutankhamun's Ancestry
- Hawass, Zahi (September 2010). "King Tut's Family Secrets". National Geographic. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "DNA experts disagree over Tutankhamun's ancestry". Archaeology News Network. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Was King Tut Buried in a Hurry?". History.com.
- "Who was King Tutankhamun?". news18.com. 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
- Hawass, Zahi. "Tutankhamon, segreti di famiglia". National Geographic (in Italian). Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- Roberts, Michelle (16 February 2010). "'Malaria' killed King Tutankhamun". BBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
- Pays, JF (December 2010). "Tutankhamun and sickle-cell anaemia". Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 103 (5, number 5): 346–347. doi:10.1007/s13149-010-0095-3. PMID 20972847.(Abstract)
- Bates, Claire (20 February 2010). "Unmasked: The real faces of the crippled King Tutankhamun (who walked with a cane) and his incestuous parents". Daily Mail. London.
- Markel, H. (17 February 2010). "King Tutankhamun, modern medical science, and the expanding boundaries of historical inquiry". JAMA. 303 (7): 667–668. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.153. PMID 20159878. Retrieved 21 October 2013. (subscription required)
- Rosenbaum, Matthew (14 September 2012). "Mystery of King Tut's death solved?". ABC News. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "EURAC research – Research – Institutes – Institute for Mummies and the Iceman". Eurac.edu. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Hussein, Kais; Matin, Ekatrina; Nerlich, Andreas G. (2013). "Paleopathology of the juvenile Pharaoh Tutankhamun—90th anniversary of discovery". Virchows Archiv. 463 (3): 475–479. doi:10.1007/s00428-013-1441-1. PMID 23812343.
- Owen, Jonathan (3 November 2013). "Solved: The mystery of King Tutankhamun's death". The Independent. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Joseph, Claudia; Webb, Sam (2 November 2013). "Mummy-fried! Tutankhamun's body spontaneously combusted inside his coffin following botched embalming job after he died in speeding chariot accident". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Buchanan, Rose Troup (20 October 2014). "King Tutankhamun did not die in chariot crash, virtual autopsy reveals". The Independent. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "Tutankhamun died of illness, not from chariot racing". Russia Today. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- Marchant, Jo (2013). The Shadow King: The Bizarre Afterlife of King Tut's Mummy. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306821338.
- The Life and Death of Pharaoh Tutankumn:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7HtbsrRtl8
- Interview with G.A. Gaballa, of Cairo University. "The Hittites: A Civilization that Changed the World" by Cinema Epoch 2004. Directed by Tolga Ornek. Documentary.
- Redford, Donald B., PhD; McCauley, Marissa. "How were the Egyptian pyramids built?". Research. The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Aude Gros de Beler, Tutankhamun, foreword Aly Maher Sayed, Molière, ISBN 2-84790-210-4
- Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Editor Donald B. Redford, p. 85, Berkley, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
- Booth 2007, p. 120.
- "The Golden Age of Tutankhamun: Divine Might and Splendour in the New Kingdom", Zahi Hawass, p. 61, American University in Cairo Press, 2004, ISBN 977-424-836-8
- Reeves & Wilkinson 1996, p. 81.
- "Howard Carter's diaries (1 January to 31 May 1923)". Archived from the original on 7 April 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
- Michael McCarthy (5 October 2007). "3,000 years old: the face of Tutankhaten". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 November 2007.
- Williams, A. R.; 24, National Geographic PUBLISHED November. "King Tut: The Teen Whose Death Rocked Egypt". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2015-11-26.
- Dagger in Tutankhamun's tomb was made with iron from a meteorite The Guardian
- King Tutankhamun buried with dagger made of space iron, study finds, ABC News Online, 2 June 2016
- Comelli, Daniela; d'Orazio, Massimo; Folco, Luigi, et. al (2016). "The meteoritic origin of Tutankhamun's iron dagger blade". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 51 (7): 1301. Bibcode:2016M&PS...51.1301C. doi:10.1111/maps.12664."Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in a printed issue)".
- Walsh, Declan (2 June 2016). "King Tut's Dagger Made of 'Iron From the Sky,' Researchers Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
- Nicholas Reeves Tutankhamun's Mask Reconsidered BES 19 (2014), pp. 511–22
- Peter Hessler, Inspection of King Tut's Tomb Reveals Hints of Hidden Chambers National Geographic, September 28, 2015
- Nicholas Reeves, The Gold Mask of Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol.7 No.4, (December 2015) pp. 77–9 & click download this PDF file
- Nicholas Reeves,Tutankhamun's Mask Reconsidered BES 19 (2014), pp. 523–24
- Gebelhoff, Robert (12 August 2015). "Archaeologist believes he may have found remains of ancient Egyptian queen Nefertiti – hidden in King Tut's tomb". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-09-23.
- https://plus.google.com/+travelandleisure/posts. "King Tut's Tomb Is Reopening to Visitors After 9 Years of Dazzling Restoration Work – Take a Look Inside". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved 2019-02-04.
- Hankey, Julie (2007). A Passion for Egypt: Arthur Weigall, Tutankhamun and the 'Curse of the Pharaohs'. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-1-84511-435-0.
- "The death of Lord Carnarvon".
- Cox, A. M. "The death of Lord Carnarvon". The Lancet, 7 June 2003. [sic]
- David Vernon in Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, ed. Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0-7316-5794-2, p. 25.
- "北京赛车pk10 pk10开奖直播 北京赛车pk10开奖结果历史记录 – pk10直播网". www.touregypt.net.
- Bill Price. Tutankhamun, Egypt's Most Famous Pharaoh. p. 138. Published Pocket Essentials, Hertfordshire. 2007. ISBN 9781842432402.
- "Death Claims Noted Biblical Archaeologist", Lodi News-Sentinel, 8 September 1961, Retrieved 9 May 2014 
- "Record visitor figures". British Museum. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "Under Tut's spell". Al-Ahram Weekly. 16 July 2004. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- "King Tut exhibition. Tutankhamun & the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. Treasures from the Valley of the Kings". Arts and Exhibitions International. Archived from the original on 2 December 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
- Bone, James (13 October 2007). "Return of the King". The Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011.
- "Dallas Museum of Art Website". Dallasmuseumofart.org. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- Associated Press, "Tut Exhibit to Return to US Next Year" Archived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs | King Tut Returns to San Francisco, June 27, 2009 – March 28, 2010". Famsf.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- Melbourne Museum's Tutenkhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaoh's Official Site Archived 1 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Jenny Booth (6 January 2005). "CT scan may solve Tutankhamun death riddle". The Times. London.
- Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Farewell To Tut And Egypt's Treasures". Pacificsciencecenter.org. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014.
- "Digital Egypt for Universities: Tutankhamun". University College London. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
- Booth, Charlotte (2007). The Boy Behind the Mask: Meeting the Real Tutankhamun. Oneworld. ISBN 978-1-85168-544-8.
- Gilbert, Katherine Stoddert; Holt, Joan K.; Hudson, Sara, eds. (1976). Treasures of Tutankhamun. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-87099-156-6.
- Reeves, C. Nicholas. The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, 1 November 1990, ISBN 0-500-05058-9 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-500-27810-5 (paperback) Fully covers the complete contents of his tomb.
- Reeves, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Richard H. (1996). The Complete Valley of the Kings. London: Thames and Hudson.
- Andritsos, John. Social Studies of Ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia 2006.
- Brier, Bob. The Murder of Tutankhamun: A True Story. Putnam Adult, 13 April 1998, ISBN 0-425-16689-9 (paperback)/ISBN 0-399-14383-1 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-613-28967-6 (School & Library Binding).
- Carter, Howard and Arthur C. Mace, The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Courier Dover Publications, 1 June 1977, ISBN 0-486-23500-9 The semi-popular account of the discovery and opening of the tomb written by the archaeologist responsible.
- Desroches-Noblecourt, Christiane. Sarwat Okasha (Preface), Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a Pharaoh. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1963, ISBN 0-8212-0151-4 (1976 reprint, hardcover) /ISBN 0-14-011665-6 (1990 reprint, paperback).
- Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, The Mummy of Tutankhamun: The CT Scan Report, as printed in Ancient Egypt, June/July 2005.
- Haag, Michael. The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty. London 2005. ISBN 1-84353-554-8.
- Hoving, Thomas. The Search for Tutankhamun: The Untold Story of Adventure and Intrigue Surrounding the Greatest Modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, 15 October 1978, ISBN 0-671-24305-5 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-8154-1186-3 (paperback) This book details a number of anecdotes about the discovery and excavation of the tomb.
- James, T. G. H. Tutankhamun. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 1 September 2000, ISBN 1-58663-032-6 (hardcover) A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of the funerary furnishings of Tutankhamun, and related objects.
- Neubert, Otto. Tutankhamun and the Valley of the Kings. London: Granada Publishing Limited, 1972, ISBN 0-583-12141-1 (paperback) First hand account of the discovery of the Tomb.
- Rossi, Renzo. Tutankhamun. Cincinnati (Ohio) 2007 ISBN 978-0-7153-2763-0, a work all illustrated and coloured.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tutankhamun.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Treasure of Tutankhamun.|
|Library resources about |