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Victoriano Huerta

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Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta.(cropped).jpg
35th President of Mexico
In office
19 February 1913 – 15 July 1914
Preceded by Pedro Lascuráin
Succeeded by Francisco S. Carvajal
Personal details
Born (1850-12-22)22 December 1850
Agua Gorda, Colotlán, Jalisco, Mexico
Died 13 January 1916(1916-01-13) (aged 65)
El Paso, Texas, U.S.
Resting place Evergreen Cemetery (El Paso, Texas)
Nationality Mexican
Political party None
Spouse(s) Emilia Águila
Military service
Allegiance  Mexico
Service/branch  Mexican Army
Years of service 1877-1907
Rank General; dictator

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (Spanish pronunciation: [biktoˈɾjano ˈweɾta]; 22 December 1850[a] – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.

After a military career under President Porfirio Díaz, Huerta became a high-ranking officer under pro-democracy President Francisco I. Madero during the first phase of the Mexican Revolution. In 1913 Huerta led a conspiracy against Madero, who entrusted him to control a minor revolt in Mexico City, deposing and assassinating Madero, his brother and Vice President Pino Suarez. This maneuver is called La Decena Tragica, the Ten Tragic Days. The Huerta regime was immediately opposed by revolutionary forces, plunging the nation into a civil war. He was forced to resign and flee the country in 1914, only 17 months into his presidency, after the federal army collapsed. While attempting to intrigue with German spies in the US during World War I, Huerta was arrested in 1915 and died in U.S. custody.

His supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution. He is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal ("The Jackal") or El Usurpador ("The Usurper").[1] Barbara W. Tuchman described him as "a pure-blooded Indian with a flat nose, a bullet head, a sphinx's eyes behind incongruous spectacles, and a brandy bottle never far from hand. Wily, patient, laconic, and rarely sober."[2]

Early life[edit]

Victoriano Huerta was born in the settlement of Agua Gorda within the municipality of Colotlán, Jalisco, son of Jesús Huerta and María Lázara del Refugio Márquez. He identified himself as indigenous, and both his parents are reported to have been ethnically Huichol, although his father is said to have been Mestizo.[3] Huerta learned to read and write at a school run by the local priest, making him one of the relatively few literate people in Colotlán.[4] He had decided upon a military career early on as the only way of escaping the poverty of Colotlán.[5] In 1869 he was employed by visiting Gen. Donato Guerra to serve as his personal secretary.[6] In that role he distinguished himself and, with Gen. Guerra's support, gained admission to the Mexican National Military Academy (Heroico Colegio Militar) at Chapultepec in Mexico City in 1872.[7] As a cadet, Huerta excelled at math, leading him to specialize in artillery and topography.[8] President Benito Juárez praised Cadet Huerta when inspecting the Academy, noting that the army needed officers of indigenous origins.[citation needed]

Military career[edit]

External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of the Mexican Revolution

Upon graduating from the military academy in 1877, Huerta was commissioned into the Corps of Engineers.[3] After entering the army as a lieutenant in the engineers in 1877, he was put in charge of improving the Loreto and Guadalupe forts in Puebla and the castle of Perote in Veracruz.[9] In January 1879 he was promoted to captain and assigned to the staff of the 4th Division in Guadalajara, in charge of engineering.[10] The commander of the 4th Division was Gen. Manual González, a close associate of President Porfirio Díaz, the dictator of Mexico.[11] In 1880 Díaz stepped back from the limelight, turning over the presidency to González before returning to office in 1884.[12] In the interim, Huerta's career prospered thanks to the patronage of González.[13] He married Emilia Águila Moya, whom he met in Veracruz, on 21 November 1880 in Mexico City.[14] They eventually had a total of 11 children. The names of his children surviving him in 1916 were Jorge, María Elisa, Victor, Luz, Elena, Dagoberto, Eva and Celia.[15] Huerta participated in the "pacification campaigns" in Tepic and Sinaloa, where he distinguished himself in combat.[3] He was known for ensuring that his men always got paid, often resorting to finding the money in ruthless ways.[16] Following a complaint from the Catholic church that Huerta had plundered a church to sell off its gold and silver to pay his men, Huerta justified his actions on the grounds that "Mexico can do without her priests, but cannot do without her soldiers".[17] On another occasion, following a complaint from a bank that he emptied out one of its branches at gunpoint to get money to pay his men, Huerta pointed out he left a receipt and would pay back the bank what he had stolen when he received the necessary funds from Mexico City.[18] Huerta then spent nine years of his military career undertaking topographic studies in the states of Puebla and Veracruz. He traveled extensively to all parts of Mexico in this position.[3] French cultural influence was very strong in 19th-century Mexico, and Huerta's hero was Napoleon.[19] He supported Gen. Díaz as the closest approximation to his Napoleonic ideal, believing that Mexico needed a "strongman" to prosper.[20]

By 1890 Huerta had reached the rank of Colonel of Engineers, under the administration of Porfirio Díaz. From 1890-95 Huerta lived in Mexico City, becoming a regular visitor to the Chapultepec Castle, and was seen as part of Díaz's "court".[21] Through Huerta was well liked at the Chapultepec Castle, acquiring the persona of a trim, efficient officer who was stern to his subordinates while displaying a courtly, polished manner towards his superiors, he began to suffer from severe insomnia and began drinking heavily during this time.[22] In January 1895 he commanded a battalion of infantry against a rebellion in Guerrero led by Gen. Canuto Neri.[23] The rebellion was ended when Díaz brokered a deal with Neri, who surrendered in exchange for a promise to remove the unpopular state governor.[24] Huerta confirmed his reputation for ruthlessness by refusing to take prisoners and continuing to attack the followers of Neri even after Díaz had signed a ceasefire.[25] In December 1900 Huerta commanded a successful military campaign against Yaqui Indians in Sonora.[26] During the near-genocidal campaign against the Yaqui, Huerta was more concerned with mapping out the terrain of Sonora, but at times he commanded forces in the field against the Yaqui.[27] From 12 April-8 September 1901 Huerta put down a rebellion in Guerrero, completely "pacifying" the state.[28] In May 1901 he was promoted to the rank of general.[29] In 1901-02 he suppressed a Maya peoples' rising in Yucatán. He commanded about 500 men in his campaign against the Maya Indians, starting in October 1901, and fought 79 different actions over the course of 39 days.[30] Huerta was then promoted to Brigadier General and awarded the Medal of Military Merit [7] In May 1902 he was promoted commander of federal army forces in the Yucatán, and in October 1902 he reported to Díaz that he had "pacified" the Yucatán.[31] During the campaign in the Yucatán he became more and more dependent on alcohol to continue functioning. His health began to decline, and perhaps because of his heavy drinking he complained he could not go outside in the sunshine without wearing sunglasses, and he suffered bouts of uncontrollable nervous shaking. His decaying teeth caused him much pain.[32] In 1905 he was appointed to head a committee tasked with reforming the uniforms of the federal army. In 1907 he retired from the army on grounds of ill health, having developed cataracts while serving in the southern jungles. He then applied his technical training by taking up the position of Head of Public Works in Monterrey and planning a new street layout for the city.

Revolution[edit]

On the eve of the 1910 Revolution against the long-established Díaz regime, Huerta was teaching mathematics in Mexico City. He applied successfully to rejoin the army with his former rank. He did not play a major role in the early stages of the Revolution, although he commanded the military escort that gave Díaz safe conduct into exile. Huerta initially pledged allegiance to the new administration of Francisco Madero, and was retained by Madero to crush anti-Madero revolts by rebel generals such as Pascual Orozco. However, Huerta secretly plotted with United States Ambassador to Mexico Henry Lane Wilson,[33] cashiered Gen. Bernardo Reyes and Félix Díaz, Porfirio Díaz's nephew, to overthrow Madero. This episode in Mexican history is known as La decena trágica (Ten Tragic Days). Following a confused few days of fighting in Mexico City between loyalist and rebel factions of the army, Huerta had Madero and vice-president José María Pino Suárez seized and briefly imprisoned on 18 February 1913 in the National Palace. The conspirators then met at the US Embassy to sign El Pacto de la Embajada (The Embassy Pact), which provided for the exile of Madero and Pino Suárez and Huerta's takeover of the Mexican government.[34]

La Mano Dura: Presidency of Mexico[edit]

To give the coup the appearance of legitimacy, Huerta had foreign minister Pedro Lascuráin assume the presidency; under the 1857 Constitution of Mexico, the foreign minister stood third in line for the presidency behind the Vice President and Attorney General; Madero's attorney general had also been ousted in the coup. Lascuráin then appointed Huerta as interior minister--constitutionally, fourth in line for the presidency. After less than an hour in office (some sources say as little as 15 minutes), Lascuráin resigned, handing the presidency to Huerta. At a late-night special session of Congress surrounded by Huerta's troops, the legislators endorsed his assumption of power. Four days later Madero and Pino Suárez were taken from the National Palace to prison at night and shot by officers of the rurales (federal mounted police), who were assumed to be acting on Huerta's orders.

British historian Alan Knight wrote about Huerta: "The consistent thread which ran through the Huerta regime, from start to finish, was militarisation: the growth and reliance on the Federal Army, the military takeover of public offices, the preference for military over political solutions, the militarisation of society in general".[35] Even a sympathetic historian wrote that Huerta "came very close to converting Mexico into the most completely militaristic state in the world."[36] Huerta's stated goal was a return to the "order" of the Porfiriato, but his methods were unlike those of Diaz, who had shown a talent for compromise and diplomacy, seeking support from and playing off regional elites, using not only army officers but also technocrats, former guerrilla leaders, caciques and provincial elites to support his regime.[37] By contrast, Huerta relied entirely upon the army for support, giving officers all of the key jobs, regardless of their talents, as Huerta sought to rule with La Mano Dura ("The Iron Hand"), believing only in military solutions to all problems.[38] For this reason, Huerta during his short time as President was the object of far more hatred than Diaz ever was; even the Zapatistas had a certain respect for Diaz as a patriarchal leader who had enough sense to finally leave with dignity in 1911, whereas Huerta was detested as a stupid, thuggish soldier who had Madero murdered and sought to terrorize the nation into submission.[39] Huerta disliked cabinet meetings, ordered his ministers about as if they were NCOs and displayed in general a highly autocratic style.[40] Felix Diaz and the rest of the conservative leaders had seen Huerta as a transitional leader and pressed for early elections, which they expected to be won by Diaz on a Catholic conservative platform, and were rudely surprised when they discovered Huerta wanted to keep the presidency for himself.[41] The Huerta government was promptly recognized by all the European governments, but the outgoing US administration of William Howard Taft refused to recognize the new government, as a way of pressuring Mexico to end the Chamizal border dispute in favor of the US, with the plan being to trade recognition for settling the dispute on American terms.[42] New American president Woodrow Wilson had a general bias in favor of liberal democracy and had some distaste for Gen.Huerta, but was initially open to recognizing Huerta provided that he could "win" an election that would give him a democratic veneer.[43] However, Wilson, an ardent white supremacist, was annoyed at how the "iron fist" policies of Huerta were destabilizing Mexico and causing Mexicans to flee into the US.[44]

Huerta moved quickly to consolidate power with the support of state governors.[45] Chihuahua Gov. Abraham González refused and Huerta had him arrested and murdered in March 1913. The most important challenge from a state governor was by Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, who drafted the Plan of Guadalupe, calling for the creation of a Constitutionalist Army to oust Huerta and restore constitutional government. Supporters of Carranza's plan included Emiliano Zapata, who nonetheless remained loyal to his own Plan de Ayala; Francisco "Pancho" Villa; and Álvaro Obregón. However, former revolutionary Gen. Pascual Orozco, whom Huerta fought when serving President Madero, now joined with Huerta as a counter-revolutionary. Four Deputies were executed over the summer of 1913 for criticizing the Huerta regime.[46] One deputy was arrested by Mexico City police as he was delivering a speech denouncing Huerta at a rally and taken out to the countryside, where he was "shot while trying to escape".[47] Lacking popular legitimacy, Huerta chose to turn the refusal of the US to recognize his government as an example of American "interference" in Mexico's internal affairs, organizing anti-American demonstrations in the summer of 1913 with the hope of gaining some popular support.[48]

Victoriano Huerta (left) and Pascual Orozco (right).

Huerta established a harsh military dictatorship.[49] U.S. President Woodrow Wilson became hostile to the Huerta administration, recalled ambassador Henry Lane Wilson and demanded Huerta step aside for democratic elections. In August 1913 Wilson imposed an arms embargo on Mexico, forcing Huerta to turn to Europe and Japan to buy arms.[50] Reflecting the general disenchantment with Huerta's "iron hand" policies, a prominent conservative, Sen. Belisario Domínguez of Chiapas, handed out copies of a speech he did not dare to deliver in the Senate, accusing Huerta of starting the civil war which he was losing, of wanting "to cover the land with corpses . . . rather than abandon power" and called for Congress to impeach Huerta before Mexico was plunged into the abyss.[51] Domínguez knew he was risking his life by speaking out and sent his wife and children out of Mexico before handing out copies of his speech.[52] Domínguez was arrested by two policemen plus Huerta's son and son-in-law, taken to a cemetery where he was "shot while trying to escape" for speaking out against the President. His body was dumped into the grave that his killers had already dug for him.[53] On 10 October 1913, when Congress announced it was opening an investigation of the disappearance of Sen. Domínguez, who had last been seen several days before being forced into a police car, Huerta sent his soldiers in to shut down Congress in session and arrested 110 Senators and Deputies, of whom 74 were charged with high treason and put to work building a bullfighting arena.[54]

The federal army Huerta took over in February 1913 numbered between 45,000-50,000 men and, due to the civil war he was losing, Huerta continued to increase the strength of the army, issuing a degree for conscripting 150,000 men in October 1913, another degree for conscripting 200,000 men in January 1914 and a quarter of million men in March 1914, through these figures were never achieved as many men fled to fight for the Constitutionalists rather than Huerta.[55] Together with an increase in the number of the paramilitary rurales police force and the state militias, Huerta had approximately 300,000 men, or about 4% of the population, fighting for him by early 1914.[56] As no one wanted to fight for Huerta, he had to resort to the leva, as vagrants, criminals, captured rebels, political prisoners and sometimes just men on the streets were rounded up to serve in the Federal Army.[57] In Veracruz workers getting off the night shift at factories were rounded up in a leva, while in Mexico City poor men going to hospitals were rounded up in the leva.[58] As Indians were felt to be particularly docile and submissive to whites, the leva was applied especially heavily in the southern Mexico, where the majority of the people were Indians. Thousands of Juchiteco and Maya Indians were rounded up to fight a war in the north of Mexico that they felt did not concern them.[59] A visitor to Mérida in the Yucatán wrote of "heart-breaking" scenes as hundreds of Maya Indians said goodbye to their wives as they were forced to board a train while in chains.[60]

As the men rounded up in the leva proved to be poor soldiers, prone to desertion and mutiny, Huerta had to follow a defensive strategy of keeping the army concentrated in large towns, since his soldiers in the field would either desert or go over to the rebels.[61] Throughout the civil war of 1913-14 the Constitutionalists fought with a ferocity and courage that the federal army never managed.[62] In the Yucatán about 70% of the army were men conscripted from the prisons, while one "volunteer" battalion consisted of captured Yaqui Indians.[63] In October 1913, in the town of Tlalnepanta, the army's 9th Regiment, which was said to have been "crazed with alcohol and marijuana", mutinied, murdered their officers and went over to the rebels.[64] To provide volunteers, Huerta turned to Mexican nationalism and anti-Americanism in the fall of 1913, running spurious stories in the press warning of an imminent American invasion and asking for patriotic men to step up to defend Mexico.[65] The patriotic campaign attracted some volunteers from the lower middle class, through they were usually disillusioned when they learned that they were going to fight other Mexicans, not the Americans.[66] In rural Mexico a sense of Mexican nationalism barely existed at this time among the campesinos; Mexico was an abstract entity that meant nothing, and most campesinos were primarily loyal to their own villages, the patria chicas.[67] Huerta's patriotic campaign was a complete failure in the countryside.[68] The other source of volunteers was to allow wealthy landlords to raise private armies under the guise of the state militias, but few peons wanted to fight, let alone die, for Gen. Huerta, as the Constitutionalists were promising land reform.[69]

When Huerta refused to call elections, and with the situation further exacerbated by the Tampico Affair, President Wilson landed US troops to occupy Mexico's most important seaport, Veracruz.

After the federal army was repeatedly defeated in battle by Obregón and Villa, climaxing in the Battle of Zacatecas, Huerta bowed to internal and external pressure and resigned the presidency on 15 July 1914.[70]

Exile, late life and death[edit]

José C. Delgado, Victoriano Huerta and Abraham F. Ratner.

Huerta went into exile, first traveling to Kingston, Jamaica, aboard the German cruiser SMS Dresden.[71] From there he moved to the UK, then Spain, and arrived in the US in April 1915.

While in the US he negotiated with Capt. Franz von Rintelen of German Navy Intelligence for money to purchase weapons and arrange U-boat landings to provide support, while offering (perhaps as a bargaining chip) to make war on the US, which Germany hoped would end munitions supplies to the Allies.[72] Their meetings, held at the Manhattan Hotel (as well as another New York hotel, "probably the Holland House" at Fifth Avenue and 30th Street)[73], were observed by Secret Servicemen, and von Rintelen's telephone conversations were routinely intercepted and recorded.[73]

Huerta traveled from New York by train to Newman, New Mexico (25 miles from the border), where he was to be met by Gen. Pascual Orozco and some well-armed Mexican supporters. However, a US Army colonel with 25 soldiers and two deputy US marshals intervened and arrested him as he left the train, on a charge of sedition.[74] The German-initiated plan for Huerta to regain the Mexican presidency through a coup d'état was foiled. After some time in a US Army prison at Fort Bliss he was released on bail, but remained under house arrest due to risk of flight to Mexico. A day after, he attended a dinner at Fort Bliss. Later he was returned to jail, and while so confined died, perhaps of cirrhosis of the liver. While the main symptom was yellow jaundice, poisoning by the US was widely suspected.[75]

In popular culture[edit]

Huerta has been portrayed or referenced in any number of movies dealing with the Mexican Revolution, including The Wild Bunch, Duck, You Sucker! and And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself.

In the 1952 film Viva Zapata!, starring Marlon Brando as Emiliano Zapata, Huerta is portrayed by Frank Silvera.

In the 1968 film Villa Rides, Huerta was played by Herbert Lom.

In the novel The Friends of Pancho Villa (1996), by James Carlos Blake, Huerta is a major character.

Both Victoriano Huerta and Pancho Villa are referenced in the fourth "Indiana Jones movie", Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), when Indiana (Harrison Ford) is recalling events in his childhood to his yet-to-be revealed son (Shia LaBeouf): "It was a fight against Victoriano Huerta". He then spits on the ground to show disgust at the name.

The popular song "La Cucaracha" was created for him, as the first character where his affinity to alcohol and marijuana (pot) is mentioned. He always used dark rounded sunglasses to cover his constant intoxication.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Caballero, Raymond (2015). Lynching Pascual Orozco, Mexican Revolutionary Hero and Paradox. Create Space. ISBN 978-1514382509. 
  • Katz, Friedrich. The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981.
  • Meyer, Michael C. Huerta: A Political Portrait. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press 1972.
  • Richmond, Douglas W. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 1, pp. 655–658. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There is dispute about the date of birth and the maternal surname of Victoriano Huerta. Many sources, including Gobernantes de México by Fernando Orozco Linares give a birthdate of 23 March 1854 and a maternal surname of Ortega. However, the parish register of Colotlán, Jalisco as filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah on film 0443681 v. 24 p. 237 shows a baptism date of 23 December 1850, a birth date of 22 December 1850 and his mother's name as María Lázara del Refugio Márquez. The marriage record dated 21 November 1880 at Santa Veracruz parrish in Mexico City as filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah on film 0035853 confirms his mother's name as: Del Refugio Márquez.

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCartney, Laton. The Teapot Dome Scandal: How Big Oil Bought the Harding White House and Tried to Steal the Country, Random House, Inc., 2008, p. 1901.
  2. ^ Barbara W. Tuchman (1958), The Zimmermann Telegram, 1965 reprint, New York: Dell, Ch. 3," 'Seize the Customs House at Once!' ", p. 40.
  3. ^ a b c d Richmond, Douglas W. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 1, p. 655, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
  4. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 136.
  5. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 136.
  6. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 136.
  7. ^ a b Coerver, Don M. (2004). Mexico: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Culture and History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-132-4. 
  8. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  9. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  10. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  11. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  12. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  13. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 137.
  14. ^ Genealogical Society of Utah, Film 0035853
  15. ^ El Paso Times obituary
  16. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 138.
  17. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 138.
  18. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 138.
  19. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 139.
  20. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 139.
  21. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 139.
  22. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 139.
  23. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 140.
  24. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 140.
  25. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 140.
  26. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 pages 140-141.
  27. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 pages 140-141.
  28. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 141.
  29. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 141.
  30. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 141.
  31. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 142.
  32. ^ Rausch, Georgre "The Early Career of Victoriano Huerta" pages 136-145 from The Americas, Volume 21, No. 2 October 1964 page 142.
  33. ^ McLynn, Frank (2002). Villa and Zapata. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1088-8. 
  34. ^ Richards, Michael D. Revolutions in world history, Routledge, 2004, p. 26.
  35. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 62.
  36. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 62.
  37. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 63.
  38. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 63.
  39. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 63.
  40. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 64.
  41. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 64.
  42. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 68.
  43. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 69.
  44. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 69.
  45. ^ Richmond, Douglas W. "Victoriano Huerta" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 1, p. 656.
  46. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 67.
  47. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 67.
  48. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 71.
  49. ^ Richmond, "Victoriano Huerta", p. 657.
  50. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 72.
  51. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 66.
  52. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 66.
  53. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 67.
  54. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 75.
  55. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 77.
  56. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 77.
  57. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 77.
  58. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 77.
  59. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 78.
  60. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 78.
  61. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 79.
  62. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 79.
  63. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 79.
  64. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 79.
  65. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 pages 79-80.
  66. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 80.
  67. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 80.
  68. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 page 80.
  69. ^ Knight, Alan The Mexican Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Reconstruction, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 pages 81-82.
  70. ^ "Huerta's Final Message to the Mexican Congress". The Independent. July 27, 1914. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  71. ^ Russell, Thomas Herbert. America's War for Humanity, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009, p. 500.
  72. ^ Tuchman, Barbara W. The Zimmermann Telegram (New York: NEL Mentor, 1967), pp. 73-4.
  73. ^ a b Tuchman, p. 73.
  74. ^ Blum, Howard. Dark Invasion: 1915 - Germany's Secret War, Harper, 2014, p. 228.
  75. ^ Stacy, Lee. Mexico and the United States, Marshall Cavendish, 2002, p. 405.

17 - "Temporada de Zopilotes" ( Buzzard's Season) Paco Ignacio Taibo II, Editorial Planeta, 2000 ISBN 978-6070701160. Narrative of the Decena Tragica (The tragic 10 days)

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Pedro Lascuráin
President of Mexico
19 February 1913 – 15 July 1914
Succeeded by
Francisco S. Carvajal