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Demographics of Guatemala

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The demographics of Guatemala are diverse; the population, 17,263,239 strong, (2018 estimate)[1] primarily comprises Mestizos, Amerindians, and people of European descent. The population is divided almost evenly between rural and urban areas.[2] About 65% of the population speak Spanish, with nearly all the rest speaking Amerindian languages (there are 23 officially recognized Amerindian languages).[3]

According to official 2012 national statistics, 39.8% of the population is Indigenous.[2]

Population[edit]

Guatemala's population (1950-2010)[4]

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[5] the total population estimate was 16,582,469 in 2016. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.5%, 54.1% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, and 4.4% were aged 65 years or older.[4]

Guatemala City is home to almost 3 million inhabitants.[6] In 1900 Guatemala had a population of 885,000.[7] Over the twentieth century Guatemala's population grew by a factor of fourteen. Even though Guatemala's population grew by a factor of 14, it still wasn't the biggest jump in that region.[8] Although Guatemala does have an increase in population, the annual population isn't the superior in that region of the world as well.[8]

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 3 146 44.6 52.9 2.5
1955 3 619 45.4 52.0 2.6
1960 4 141 45.8 51.6 2.7
1965 4 736 45.2 52.0 2.8
1970 5 416 44.6 52.5 2.9
1975 6 194 44.8 52.3 2.9
1980 7 001 45.4 51.6 3.0
1985 7 920 45.7 51.2 3.1
1990 8 890 45.4 51.3 3.4
1995 9 984 44.9 51.4 3.7
2000 11 204 44.1 51.9 4.0
2005 12 679 43.2 52.6 4.3
2010 14 342 41.5 54.1 4.4

Population by departments[edit]

In Guatemala, there are 22 departments that make up the country. Each department has its own population, with Guatemala City ranking at 1 with the highest population and El Progreso ranking at 22 with the lowest population.[9]

Rank Department Pop. Rank Department Pop. Rank Department Pop.
1 Guatemala 3,306,397 10 Suchitepéquez 555,261 18 Retalhuleu 325,556
2 Huehuetenango 1,234,593 11 Sololá 430,573 19 Baja Verapaz 291,903
3 Alta Verapaz 1,219,585 12 Jutiapa 489,085 20 Zacapa 291,903
4 San Marcos 1,095,997 13 Izabal 445,125 21 Totonicapán 134,373
5 Quiché 955,705 14 Chiquimula 397,202 22 El Progreso 22,654.00
6 Quetzaltenango 844,906 15 Santa Rosa 367,569
7 Escuintla 746,309 16 Jalapa 345,926
8 Petén 711,585 17 Sacatepéquez 336,606
9 Chimaltenango 666,938 18 Total 15,806,675 (2014)
Source: National Institute of Statistics (INE)[10]

According to the table, Guatemala City accounts for 20% of the entire population in Guatemala, while El Progreso only accounts for 0.14% of the population. Sololá accounts for 2.7% of the population while ranking in the middle at 11. Overall, the rankings correlate to the percent of the population that each department contains.

Emigration[edit]

The Guatemalan civil war from 1960 to 1996 led to mass emigration, particularly Guatemalan immigration to the United States. According to the International Organization for Migration, the total number of emigrants increased from 6,700 in the 1960s to 558,776 for the period 1995-2000; by 2005, the total number had reached 1.3 million.[11] In 2013, the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) estimated that there were about 900,000 Guatemalan Americans (persons of Guatemalan origin in the United States).[12]

Country Count
United States United States 480,665[13] – 1,489,426[14]
Mexico Mexico 23,529[14]
Belize Belize 14,693[14]
Canada Canada 14,256[14] – 34,665[15]
Germany Germany 5,989[14]
Honduras Honduras 5,172[14]
El Salvador El Salvador 4,209[14]
Spain Spain 2,491[14]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Indigenous girls in Chichicastenango

Ethnic groups in Guatemala by %[2][3][16]

  Mestizos (41.0%)
  Amerindians (38.9%)
  Whites (18.5%)
  Blacks (1.0%)
  Asians (0.6%)

Official 2012 statistics indicate that approximately 60.2% of the population is "non-Indigenous",[2] referring to the Mestizo population and the people of European origin. These people are called Ladino in Guatemala.

Approximately 39.8% of the population is Indigenous[2] and consist of 23 Maya groups and one non-Maya group. These are divided as follows: (K'iche 9.1%, 8.4% Kaqchikel, Mam 7.9%, 6.3% Q'eqchi', other Maya peoples 8.6%, 0.2% Indigenous non-Maya).[3] They live all over the country, especially in the highlands.

Other racial groups include numbers of Afro-Guatemalans, Afro-Mestizos, and Garifuna of mixed African and Indigenous Caribbean origins who live in the country's eastern end. Some Garifunas live mainly in Livingston, San Vicente and Puerto Barrios. They descend mainly from the Arawaks and Belizean Creoles.[3]

There are thousands of Arab Guatemalans descending from; Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and other Arab countries who reside in Guatemala City. Some belong to Christian Churches while others to Islamic Mosques.

There are also thousands of Jews residing in Guatemala. They are immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe that arrived in the 19th century. Many immigrated during World War II. There are approximately 9,000 Jews living in Guatemala today. Most live in Guatemala City, Quezaltenango and San Marcos. Today, the Jewish community in Guatemala is made up of Orthodox Jews, Sephardi, Eastern European and German Jews.

In 2014, numerous members of the Hassidic communities Lev Tahor and Toiras Jesed began settling in the village of San Juan La Laguna. The mainstream Jewish community was reportedly dismayed and concerned that the arrival of communities with a more visible adherence to Judaism might stir up anti-Jewish sentiment. Despite the tropical heat, the members of the community continued to wear the traditional ancient Jewish clothing.[17][18][19]

Asian Guatemalans are primarily of Korean descent[citation needed] and Chinese descent, whose ancestors were farm workers and railroad laborers in the early 20th century.

History[edit]

The Maya Civilization ruled Guatemala and the surrounding regions until around 1,000 A.D. Following 1,000 A.D., Guatemala became a Spanish colony for approximately three centuries, until in 1821 when Guatemala won its independence. Since the independence of Guatemala, the country has experienced a wide range of governments, including civilian and military governments. In 1996, a peace treaty was signed by the government that ended internal conflicts within the region, which caused over 200,000 casualties and approximately one million refugees.[20]

White Guatemalans[edit]

Approximately 18.5% of the population is considered White or Caucasian, which accounts for more than 3 million of the population. Most are of Spanish or German descent, but there is a considerable number of people of Italian, Belgian, French, British, Swiss, Finnish, Russian and Hungarian descent.

The departments of Zacapa and Chiquimula are half or predominantly of Spanish descent, with castizos, the white populations make up more than 80% in these departments, where many European immigrants arrived, mainly the 19th and 20th centuries. In Guatemala City there is a significant amount of minority descendants of Europeans (35-40%), and other minorities with more than 20% in Coban, Carlos V, and Xelaju.

Mestizo Guatemalans[edit]

Guatemalan Mestizos are people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry. The Mestizo population is heavily populated in urban areas of the country (the national capital and departmental capitals).[21]

Historically, the Mestizo population in the Kingdom of Guatemala at the time of Independence amounted to nearly 600,000 Indians, 300,000 Castas (mostly Mestizos and a lesser number of Mulattos, Zambos, and Pardos), and 45,000 Criollos or Spanish, with a very small number of Spaniards.[22]

Indigenous Guatemalans[edit]

The Amerindian populations in Guatemala include the K'iche' 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9% and Q'eqchi 6.3%. 8.6% belongs to other Maya groups, 0.4% belong to non-Maya Indigenous peoples. The whole Indigenous community in Guatemala is about 40.5% of the population.[23]


Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[4]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 170 000 75 000 95 000 50.3 22.3 28.0 7.00 141 42.5 41.8 43.3
1955-1960 183 000 78 000 104 000 47.0 20.2 26.9 6.60 134 44.5 43.7 45.4
1960-1965 204 000 80 000 124 000 46.0 18.0 28.0 6.50 127 47.1 46.2 48.1
1965-1970 227 000 80 000 146 000 44.7 15.8 28.8 6.30 116 50.1 49.0 51.3
1970-1975 255 000 79 000 177 000 44.0 13.5 30.4 6.20 102 53.9 52.4 55.4
1975-1980 287 000 80 000 206 000 43.5 12.2 31.3 6.20 91 56.2 54.4 58.2
1980-1985 315 000 81 000 234 000 42.2 10.9 31.3 6.10 79 58.3 56.1 60.8
1985-1990 333 000 79 000 254 000 39.6 9.4 30.2 5.70 67 60.9 58.3 63.8
1990-1995 367 000 76 000 291 000 38.9 8.1 30.8 5.45 55 63.5 60.5 66.9
1995-2000 396 000 73 000 322 000 37.3 6.9 30.4 5.00 46 66.3 62.9 70.0
2000-2005 427 000 72 000 355 000 35.8 6.1 29.7 4.60 39 69.0 65.5 72.5
2005-2010 449 000 77 000 373 000 33.3 5.7 27.6 4.15 30 70.3 66.7 73.8
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Over the course of 60 years, live births per year has increased by a factor of 2.6, while the deaths per year has only increased by a factor of 1.0. This suggests that the natural change per year has increased by a factor of 3.9. The crude birth rate has decreased from 50.3 births per 1,000 population to only 33.3 births per 1,000 population. Meanwhile, the crude death rate has decreased from 22.3 deaths per 1,000 population to 5.6 deaths per 1,000 population. The CDR and CBR correlate to the rate of natural change, which has fluctuated over the 60 year time period. The total fertility rate has decreased from 7.00 children per woman to 4.15 children per woman and the infant mortality rate decreased from 141 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to 30 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. The TFR decreases due to the decreased IMR.[24] Lastly, the table shows the total life expectancy for males and/or females. Overall, the total life expectancy has increased from approximately 43 years to approximately 70 years.[4]

Registered annual data[edit]

[25][26]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1930 1 760 000 100 000 43 500 56 500 56.8 24.7 32.1
1931 1 810 000 99 000 44 000 55 000 54.7 24.3 30.4
1932 1 860 000 93 600 43 900 49 700 50.3 23.6 26.7
1933 1 910 000 90 700 52 100 38 600 47.5 27.3 20.2
1934 1 940 000 92 205 60 051 32 154 47.5 31.0 16.6
1935 1 980 000 96 031 54 789 41 242 48.5 27.7 20.8
1936 2 020 000 97 646 50 604 47 042 48.3 25.1 23.3
1937 2 070 000 96 981 51 027 45 954 46.9 24.7 22.2
1938 2 110 000 98 906 56 131 42 775 46.9 26.6 20.3
1939 2 150 000 102 908 64 117 38 791 47.9 29.8 18.0
1940 2 200 000 106 998 55 083 51 915 48.6 25.0 23.6
1941 2 250 000 103 688 56 444 47 244 46.1 25.1 21.0
1942 2 300 000 107 519 72 477 35 042 46.7 31.5 15.2
1943 2 340 000 112 407 72 837 39 570 48.0 31.1 16.9
1944 2 390 000 111 324 63 068 48 256 46.6 26.4 20.2
1945 2 440 000 118 912 59 732 59 180 48.7 24.5 24.3
1946 2 500 000 120 525 61 641 58 884 48.2 24.7 23.6
1947 2 570 000 134 066 63 316 70 750 52.2 24.6 27.5
1948 2 641 000 137 009 62 090 74 919 51.9 23.5 28.4
1949 2 724 000 140 596 59 277 81 319 51.6 21.8 29.9
1950 3 146 000 142 673 61 234 81 439 48.1 20.6 27.4
1951 3 238 000 151 416 56 550 94 866 49.6 18.5 31.1
1952 3 331 000 151 865 71 994 79 871 48.3 22.9 25.4
1953 3 426 000 156 377 70 794 85 583 48.3 21.9 26.4
1954 3 521 000 162 773 58 132 104 641 48.9 17.4 31.4
1955 3 619 000 158 856 67 088 91 768 46.3 19.6 26.7
1956 3 719 000 163 301 66 280 97 021 46.2 18.8 27.5
1957 3 820 000 170 381 70 933 99 448 46.9 19.5 27.4
1958 3 924 000 172 745 75 634 97 111 46.2 20.2 26.0
1959 4 031 000 181 740 63 010 118 730 47.2 16.4 30.8
1960 4 141 000 186 476 65 805 120 671 47.1 16.6 30.4
1961 4 253 000 193 833 63 287 130 546 47.5 15.5 32.0
1962 4 369 000 191 420 69 287 122 133 45.6 16.5 29.1
1963 4 488 000 197 671 71 449 126 222 45.8 16.6 29.2
1964 4 610 000 196 386 68 278 128 108 44.2 15.4 28.9
1965 4 736 000 201 059 74 830 126 229 44.0 16.4 27.6
1966 4 864 000 206 520 75 774 130 746 44.0 16.1 27.8
1967 4 996 000 201 816 71 191 130 625 41.8 14.8 27.1
1968 5 132 000 211 679 79 421 132 258 42.7 16.0 26.7
1969 5 271 000 215 397 85 174 130 223 42.2 16.7 25.5
1970 5 416 000 212 151 77 333 134 818 40.5 14.7 25.7
1971 5 565 000 229 674 75 223 154 451 42.6 14.0 28.6
1972 5 719 000 241 593 67 989 173 604 43.6 12.3 31.3
1973 5 877 000 238 498 69 454 169 044 41.8 12.2 29.6
1974 6 036 000 252 203 69 820 182 383 43.0 11.9 31.1
1975 6 194 000 249 332 78 708 170 624 41.4 13.1 28.4
1976 6 352 000 266 728 81 627 185 101 43.2 13.2 30.0
1977 6 510 000 284 747 71 777 212 970 45.0 11.3 33.6
1978 6 669 000 286 415 66 844 219 571 44.1 10.3 33.8
1979 6 832 000 295 972 72 274 223 698 44.5 10.9 33.6
1980 7 001 000 303 643 71 352 232 291 44.5 10.5 34.1
1981 7 177 000 308 413 75 658 232 755 44.1 10.8 33.3
1982 7 358 000 312 047 76 267 235 780 43.5 10.6 32.9
1983 7 543 000 306 827 74 462 232 365 41.7 10.1 31.6
1984 7 731 000 312 094 75 462 236 632 41.3 10.0 31.4
1985 7 920 000 326 849 69 455 257 394 42.2 9.0 33.3
1986 8 109 000 318 340 66 328 252 012 40.1 8.4 31.8
1987 8 299 000 319 942 66 404 253 538 39.4 8.2 31.2
1988 8 492 000 337 396 64 100 273 296 40.5 7.7 32.8
1989 8 688 000 340 807 61 548 279 259 39.9 7.2 32.7
1990 8 890 000 347 207 73 344 273 863 39.7 8.4 31.3
1991 9 099 000 359 904 72 896 287 008 39.6 8.0 31.5
1992 9 313 000 363 648 73 124 290 524 39.0 7.9 31.2
1993 9 533 000 370 138 73 870 296 268 38.8 7.7 31.1
1994 9 756 000 381 497 74 761 306 736 39.1 7.7 31.4
1995 9 984 000 371 091 65 159 305 932 37.2 6.5 30.6
1996 10 215 000 377 723 60 618 317 105 37.0 5.9 31.0
1997 10 450 000 387 862 67 691 320 171 37.1 6.5 30.6
1998 10 691 000 400 133 69 847 330 286 37.4 6.5 30.9
1999 10 942 000 409 034 65 139 343 895 37.4 6.0 31.4
2000 11 204 000 425 410 67 284 358 126 38.0 6.0 32.0
2001 11 479 000 415 338 68 041 347 297 36.2 5.9 30.3
2002 11 766 000 387 287 66 089 321 198 32.9 5.6 27.3
2003 12 063 000 375 092 66 695 308 397 31.1 5.5 25.6
2004 12 368 000 383 704 66 991 316 713 31.0 5.4 25.6
2005 12 679 000 374 066 71 039 303 027 29.5 5.6 23.9 3.796
2006 12 995 000 368 399 69 756 298 643 28.3 5.4 22.9 3.621
2007 13 318 000 366 128 70 030 296 098 27.4 5.2 22.2 3.461
2008 13 678 000 369 769 70 233 299 536 27.0 5.1 21.9 3.386
2009 14 017 000 351 628 71 707 279 921 25.1 5.1 20.0 3.122
2010 14 362 000 361 906 72 748 289 158 25.2 5.1 20.1 3.095
2011 14 714 000 373 692 72 354 301 338 25.4 4.9 20.5 3.088
2012 15 073 000 388 613 72 657 315 956 25.8 4.8 21.0 3.105
2013 15 438 000 387 342 76 639 310 703 25.1 5.0 20.1 3.050
2014 15 807 000 386 195 77 807 308 388 24.4 4.9 19.5 3.046
2015 16 176 000 391 425 80 876 310 549 24.2 5.0 19.2 2.896
2016 16 548 000 390 382 82 585 307 797 23.7 5.0 18.7 2.804
2017 16 924 000 381 664 81 726 299 938 22.5 4.8 17.7 2.663

Fertility and births (demographic and health surveys)[edit]

Total fertility rate (TFR) (wanted fertility rate) and crude birth rate (CBR):[27][28]

Year CBR (total) TFR (total) CBR (urban) TFR (urban) CBR (rural) TFR (rural)
1987 5.6 (4.9) 4.1 (3.5) 6.5 (5.8)
1995 5.1 (4.0) 3.8 (3.0) 6.2 (4.8)
1998-99 38.0 5.0 (4.1) 34.8 4.1 (3.4) 40.1 5.8 (4.6)
2002 4.4 3.4 5.2
2008-09 3.6 2.9 4.2
2014-15 27.3 3.1 (2.6) 22.5 2.5 (2.0) 31.0 3.7 (3.0)

Structure of the population[edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2005) (estimates):[29]

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 6 197 399 6 502 381 12 699 780 100
0-4 1 035 549 1 000 763 2 036 312 16,03
5-9 921 924 901 718 1 823 642 14,36
10-14 815 791 808 328 1 624 119 12,79
15-19 685 359 694 215 1 379 574 10,86
20-24 571 385 608 879 1 180 264 9,29
25-29 446 309 506 386 952 695 7,50
30-34 340 378 412 767 753 145 5,93
35-39 270 907 329 253 600 160 4,73
40-44 225 243 267 504 492 747 3,88
45-49 191 635 218 053 409 688 3,23
50-54 175 311 191 751 367 062 2,89
55-59 149 593 161 320 310 913 2,45
60-64 113 686 119 957 233 643 1,84
65-69 94 128 98 864 192 992 1,52
70-74 74 463 81 804 156 267 1,23
75-79 50 340 57 089 107 429 0,85
80+ 35 398 43 730 79 128 0,62
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 2 773 264 2 710 809 5 484 073 43,18
15-64 3 169 806 3 510 085 6 679 891 52,60
65+ 254 329 281 487 535 816 4,22

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (estimates) (projections based on the 2002 Population Census):

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 7 003 337 7 358 328 14 361 666 100
0-4 1 103 521 1 062 224 2 165 745 15,08
5-9 1 017 180 987 490 2 004 670 13,96
10-14 906 603 891 659 1 798 262 12,52
15-19 794 459 795 688 1 590 147 11,07
20-24 646 911 675 214 1 322 125 9,21
25-29 538 214 590 746 1 128 960 7,86
30-34 418 535 494 657 913 192 6,36
35-39 323 010 402 681 725 691 5,05
40-44 258 454 321 849 580 303 4,04
45-49 215 304 260 145 475 449 3,31
50-54 182 662 211 040 393 702 2,74
55-59 165 910 184 214 350 124 2,44
60-64 139 395 152 936 292 331 2,04
65-69 103 433 111 058 214 491 1,49
70-74 81 809 88 219 170 028 1,18
75-79 60 257 68 733 128 990 0,90
80+ 47 678 59 778 107 456 0,75
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 3 027 304 2 941 373 5 968 677 41,56
15-64 3 682 856 4 089 167 7 772 023 54,12
65+ 293 177 327 788 620 965 4,32

Structure of the population (2015):[30]

Age group Total %
Total 16 176 133 100
0-4 2 262 514 13.99
5-9 2 142 308 13.24
10-14 1 988 541 12.29
15-19 1 776 352 10.98
20-24 1 553 450 9.60
25-29 1 286 639 7.95
30-34 1 099 039 6.79
35-39 889 673 5.50
40-44 707 191 4.37
45-49 563 431 3.48
50-54 459 432 2.84
55-59 377 242 2.33
60-64 330 803 2.05
65+ 739 518 4.57%
Age group Total Percent
0-14 6 393 363 39.52
15-64 9 043 252 55.90
65+ 739 518 4.57

Marriage and childbearing[edit]

The legal age for females to get married in Guatemala was 14, but was raised to 16 with parental consent and 18 without in November 2015. This phenomenon, known as child marriage, is prevalent in Central America; in rural areas of Guatemala, 53% of 20 to 24 year-old women married before their 18th birthday. Once married, young girls are likely to abandon their education and are exposed to domestic and sexual violence. They are no longer seen as girls; their husbands, who are often older men, see them as servants. Frequently births are at home. Most of these women are isolated without networks of support.[31]

In most cases, motherhood comes after marriage. However, due to the fact that these young women' bodies are not entirely developed, many pregnancies result in high complications and high risks for both the mother and baby, during and after labor.[32] Because there is limited access to health services, women in Guatemala choose a different alternative when it comes to the care during and after child delivery. Pregnancies before marriage are on the rise and unmarried women make their decision based on their image more than their safety.[33] Single Guatemalan women may choose midwives as their health care provider during pregnancy and delivery to avoid feeling ashamed.[33] Other women know the midwives in the community personally so they opt for a private healthcare provider.[33] Throughout the country, midwives are known as the providers of choice for approximately 80% of the births even though they are not professionally trained.[33] This contributes to the increasing infant mortality rate of 100 per 1,000 births as reported in some Guatemalan communities.[33]

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[34]

  • One birth every 1 minutes
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • One net migrant every 58 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 2 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[35]

Population
16,581,273 (July 2018 est.)
Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 60.1%, Maya 39.3% (K'iche 11.3%, Q'eqchi 7.6%, Kaqchikel 7.4%, Mam 5.5%, other 7.5%), non-Maya, non-mestizo 0.15% (Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya), Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak)), other 0.5% (2001 est.)

Age structure
Population pyramid of Guatemala in 2017
0-14 years: 34.55% (male 2,919,281 /female 2,810,329)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 1,688,900 /female 1,665,631)
25-54 years: 35.47% (male 2,878,075 /female 3,002,920)
55-64 years: 5.28% (male 407,592 /female 468,335)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 336,377 /female 403,833) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 22.5 years. Country comparison to the world: 179th
male: 22 years
female: 23.1 years (2018 est.)
Birth rate
24.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 50th
Death rate
5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 194th
Total fertility rate
2.87 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 58th
Net migration rate
-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 168th
Population growth rate
1.72% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th
Mother's mean age at first birth
21.2 years (2014/15 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Contraceptive prevalence rate
60.6% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 68.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 61.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.8 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 73.9 years (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official) 68.9%, Maya languages 30.9% (K'iche 8.7%, Q'eqchi 7%, Mam 4.6%, Kaqchikel 4.3%, other 6.3%), other 0.3% (includes Xinca and Garifuna) (2001 est.)
note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinka, and Garifuna
Urbanization
urban population: 51.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Education expenditures
2.8% of GDP (2017) Country comparison to the world: 149th
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 6.1%. Country comparison to the world: 151st
male: 4.6%
female: 9.1% (2016 est.)

Languages[edit]

The official language of Guatemala is Spanish. It is spoken by nearly 93% of the population and is found mainly in the departments of the Southern region, Eastern region, Guatemala City and Peten.[36] Though the official language is Spanish, it is often the second language among the Indigenous population.

Approximately 23 additional Amerindian languages are spoken by more than 40% of the population.[37] 21 Mayan languages, one indigenous, and one Arawakan are spoken in Guatemala.[38] The most significant are; Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna and Xinca.[37]

There are also significant numbers of German, Chinese, French and English speakers.

Rank Language Language family
1 Spanish Indo-European
2 K’iche’ Mayan
3 Q'eqchi' Mayan
4 Kaqchikel Mayan
5 Mam Mayan
6 Poqomchi Mayan
7 Tz’utujil Mayan
8 Achí Mayan
9 Q’anjob’al Mayan
10 Ixil Mayan
11 Akatek Mayan
12 Jakaltek Mayan
13 Chuj Mayan
14 Poqomam Mayan
15 Ch'orti' Mayan
16 Awakatek Mayan
17 Sakapultek Mayan
18 Sipakapa Mayan
19 Garífuna Arawakan
20 Uspantek Mayan
21 Tektitek Mayan
22 Mopan Mayan
23 Xincan languages Isolate
24 Itza Mayan

[38]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Guatemala (1996)[39]
Religion
Roman Catholic
54%
Evangelical
25%
Atheist, none, agnostic
8%
Others
9%
NS/NC
4%
Religion in Guatemala (2013)[39]
Religion
Roman Catholic
47%
Evangelical
40%
Atheist, none, agnostic
9%
Others
3%
NS/NC
1%

Catholicism was the official religion during the colonial era. Protestantism has increased in recent decades. More than one third of Guatemalans are Protestant, chiefly Evangelicals and Pentecostals. Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy claim rapid growth, especially among the Indigenous Maya.

The Islamic community in Guatemala is growing, Muslim population of Guatemala is approximately 1,200. Of this population, 95% are Palestinian Arab immigrants. There is a mosque in the outskirts of Guatemala City called the Islamic Da'wah Mosque of Guatemala (Spanish: Mezquita de Aldawaa Islámica) which is available for the five daily prayers and offers classes in Islamic studies.

The president of the Islamic Community of the country is Jamal Mubarak.

Traditionally a large proportion of Guatemalans have been Catholics. This has declined, from 90% of the population in 1950, 61% in 1986, 65% in 1991 (after the visit of the Pope John Paul II), 57% in 2006,[40] and 47% in 2013.[39] Between 1882 and 1940, 2% of the population were Protestants, 17.98% were Protestant in 1978, 30% in 1986, 21% in 1991, 25.27% in 2001, 30.70% in 2006[40] and 40% Protestant in 2014.[39]

3% of Guatemalans follow other religions.[39] 9% are non-religious.[39] Guatemalans who self-identify as atheists/agnostics were 3.25% of the population in 1982, 12% in 1991, and 9,9%% in 2006.[40] According to the Latinobarómetro, 8% of the population were irreligious in 1996, 15% in 2000, 16% in 2007, 11% in 2008, 13% in 2010, with 10% irreligious in 2014.[39] The "other religions" were 9% in 1996 to 14% one year later, and 3% in 2013.[39]

Religious evolution in Guatemala (by national census)
Year % Catholic % Evangelic % others % no religion
1882-1940 97% 2% 0.1% 0.4%
1978 80.1% Decrease 17.9% Increase 0.8% Increase 1.2% Increase
1980 77% Decrease 19.1% Increase 1.1% Increase 2.8% Increase
1982 73.4% Decrease 22.3% Increase 1.1% Steady 3.2% Increase
1986 62.9% Decrease 30% Increase 2% Increase 6% Increase
1991 64.6% Increase 21% Decrease 2.4% Increase 12% Increase
1992 60.4% Decrease 26.4% Increase 2.1% Decrease 11.1% Decrease
2001 58.1% Decrease 25.2% Decrease 2.5% Increase 14.2% Increase
2006 57.3% Decrease 30.7% Increase 2.1% Decrease 9.9% Decrease
2010 47.6% Decrease 31.7% Increase 2.4% Increase 18.3% Increase
2012 47.9% Increase 38.2% Increase 2.3% Decrease 11.6% Decrease
Religious identity in Guatemala (1996-2013)
Year % Catholics % Protestants % atheists/non-religious % others
1996 54% 25% 8% 13%
1997 54% 24% 6% 16%
1998 69% 19% 8% 3%
1999 60% 27% 9% 3%
2000 52% 29% 15% 4%
2001 58% 29% 7% 6%
2002 57% 29% 8% 6%
2003 59% 32% 7% 2%
2004 53% 33% 12% 2%
2005 57% 31% 10% 2%
2006 54% 34% 10% 2%
2007 48% 36% 15% 1%
2008 51% 36% 11% 2%
2009 54% 34% 9% 3%
2010 47% 39% 12% 2%
2011 55% 30% 11% 4%
2013 47% 40% 10% 3%

References[edit]

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