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Yayoi people

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The Yayoi people (弥生, Yayoi jin) were an ancient ethnic group that migrated to the Japanese archipelago mainly from the Asian continent during the Yayoi period (300 BCE–300 CE). They interacted and mixed with the Jōmon people to form the modern Japanese people. Most modern Japanese people have primarily Yayoi ancestry (ranging from 80% to 100% with an estimated average of 97%).[1][2]

Origin[edit]

The Yayoi are direct descendants of the Wajin. These terms may be used as a synonym.

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the Yayoi people:

The Yayoi were present on large parts of the Korean Peninsula before they were displaced and assimilated by arriving proto-Koreans.[11][12] Similarly Whitman (2012) suggests that the Yayoi are not related to the proto-Koreans but that they were present on the Korean peninsula during the Mumun pottery period. According to him, Japonic arrived in the Korean peninsula around 1500 BCE and was brought to the Japanese archipelago by the Yayoi at around 950 BCE. The language family associated with both Mumun and Yayoi culture is Japonic. Koreanic arrived later from Manchuria to the Korean peninsula at around 300 BCE and coexist with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators (or assimilated them). Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families.[13]

Genetics[edit]

It is estimated that Yayoi people mainly belonged to Haplogroup O-M176 (O1b2) (today ~36%), Haplogroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3) (today ~23%) and Haplogroup O-M119 (O1) (today ~4%), which are typical for East- and Southeast-Asians.[14][15] Mitsuru Sakitani suggests that haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today Koreans, Japanese and some Manchu, and O1 are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilization. As the Yangtze civilization declined several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago.[16] One study calls haplogroup O1b1 as a major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 (of Koreans and Japanese) as a "para-Austroasiatic" paternal lineage.[17]

The modern Yamato people are predominantly descendants of the Yayoi people and closely related to other modern East Asians, particularly Koreans and Han Chinese.[18][19][20] It is estimated that the majority of Japanese people around Tokyo have about 12% Jōmon ancestry or less.[21] The general estimate for mainland Japanese is they have inherited less than 20% of the Jōmon genome.[22] A 2019 study by Takashi Gakuhari et al. suggests about 92% Yayoi ancestry on average.[23]

Language[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Hideaki; Kryukov, Kirill; Jinam, Timothy A; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Saso, Aiko; Suwa, Gen; Ueda, Shintaroh; Yoneda, Minoru; Tajima, Atsushi (February 2017). "A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan". Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (2): 213–221. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.110. ISSN 1434-5161. PMC 5285490. PMID 27581845.
  2. ^ https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/03/15/579177.full.pdf
  3. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年)(in Japanese)
  4. ^ http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news111.htm
  5. ^ ロシア極東新石器時代研究の新展開 (in Japanese)
  6. ^ 徳永勝士 (2003)「HLA と人類の移動」『Science of humanity Bensei 』(42), 4-9, 東京:勉誠出版 (in Japanese)
  7. ^ 岡正雄『異人その他 日本民族=文化の源流と日本国家の形成』 言叢社 1979 (in Japanese)
  8. ^ "Javanese influence on Japanese - Languages Of The World". Languages Of The World. 2011-05-09. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  9. ^ 鳥越憲三郎『原弥生人の渡来 』(角川書店,1982)、『倭族から日本人へ』(弘文堂 ,1985)、『古代朝鮮と倭族』(中公新書,1992)、『倭族トラジャ』(若林弘子との共著、大修館書店,1995)、『弥生文化の源流考』(若林弘子との共著、大修館書店,1998)、『古代中国と倭族』(中公新書,2000)、『中国正史倭人・倭国伝全釈』(中央公論新社,2004)
  10. ^ 諏訪春雄編『倭族と古代日本』(雄山閣出版、1993)また諏訪春雄通信100
  11. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2010). "Reconstructing the Language Map of Prehistorical Northeast Asia". Studia Orientalia (108): 281–304. ... there are strong indications that the neighbouring Baekje state (in the southwest) was predominantly Japonic-speaking until it was linguistically Koreanized.
  12. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 222–240.
  13. ^ Whitman, John (2011-12-01). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan". Rice. 4 (3): 149–158. doi:10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0. ISSN 1939-8433.
  14. ^ Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (4): 480–495. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. hdl:10130/491. ISSN 1469-1809. PMID 17274803.
  15. ^ Kutanan, Wibhu; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Eisenberg, Arthur; Sun, Jie; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Srikummool, Metawee; Srithawong, Suparat (July 2015). "Genetic and linguistic correlation of the Kra–Dai-speaking groups in Thailand". Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (7): 371–380. doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.32. ISSN 1435-232X. PMID 25833471.
  16. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年
  17. ^ Robbeets, Martine; Savelyev, Alexander (2017-12-21). Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027264640.
  18. ^ Siska, Veronika; Jones, Eppie Ruth; Jeon, Sungwon; Bhak, Youngjune; Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Kyusang; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Balueva, Tatiana; Gallego-Llorente, Marcos; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G.; Eriksson, Anders; Pinhasi, Ron; Bhak, Jong; Manica, Andrea (2017). "Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago" (PDF). Science Advances (published February 1, 2017). 3. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1601877. PMC 5287702. PMID 28164156.
  19. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations" (PDF). Hereditas. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  20. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas (published April 6, 2018). 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  21. ^ "「縄文人」は独自進化したアジアの特異集団だった!: 深読み". 読売新聞オンライン (in Japanese). 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  22. ^ Kanzawa-Kiriyama, H.; Kryukov, K.; Jinam, T. A.; Hosomichi, K.; Saso, A.; Suwa, G.; Ueda, S.; Yoneda, M.; Tajima, A.; Shinoda, K. I.; Inoue, I.; Saitou, N. (2016-06-01). "A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan". Journal of Human Genetics. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. 62 (2): 213–221. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.110. PMC 5285490. PMID 27581845.
  23. ^ https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/03/15/579177.full.pdf

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Director (Research Services Division) (2019-07-20). "Professor Ann Kumar". Professor Ann Kumar, BA Hons (ANU), PhD (ANU). Visiting Fellow. School of Culture, History & Language. ANU College of Asia and the Pacific.
  2. ^ "SUWA Haruo (諏訪春雄)". 2018-01-18.