Zhu Yihai

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Zhu Yihai, Prince of Lu
Regent / Emperor of Southern Ming
Reign1645 - 1655
Prince of Lu (魯王)
TenureFebruary 1644 - June 1662
PredecessorZhu Yipai, the 10th Prince
SuccessorZhu Honghuan, the 12th Prince
Born(1618-07-06)6 July 1618
Yanzhou, Shandong
Died23 December 1662(1662-12-23) (aged 44)
  • Lady Zhang (張氏)
  • Lady Chen (陳氏)
  • Zhu Hongxia (朱弘柙), Hereditary Prince of Lu
  • Zhu Hongzhan (朱弘枬), Hereditary Prince of Lu
  • Zhu Hongbing (朱弘棅)
  • Zhu Hongsen (朱弘槮)
  • fifth son
  • Zhu Hongdong (朱弘棟)
  • seventh son
  • Zhu Honghuan (朱弘桓), Prince of Lu, Comm. Prince Consort of Yanping
Full name
Family name: Zhu (朱)
Given name: Yihai (以海)
Courtesy name: Juchuan (巨川)
Art name: Hengshan (恆山) / Changshizi (常石子)
Era name and dates
Gengyin (庚寅): 1645 - June 1655
Temple name
HouseHouse of Zhu
FatherZhu Shouyong (朱壽鏞), Prince Su of Lu
MotherLady Wang (王氏)

The Gengyin Emperor (Chinese: 庚寅; 1618–1662),[2][3][4] personal name Zhu Yihai (Chinese: 朱以海), was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty, reigning from 1645 to 1655. He has no temple name.


Zhu Yihai was born in 1618, during the 46th year of the reign of Wanli Emperor of the Ming Dynasty. He was son of Zhu Shouyong, he was one of 9th-generation descendant (same generation with Taichang Emperor) of Zhu Tan, Prince Huang of Lu, 10th son of Hongwu Emperor.

The mansion of Prince of Lu was located at Yanzhou. The Qing forces had attacked Yanzhou and made the mansion collapsed. At that time, the peerage of Prince of Lu was succeeded by Zhu Yihai's eldest brother, Zhu Yipai. After Qing came, Zhu Yipai committed suicide with his two another brothers, Zhu Yixing (朱以洐) and Zhu Yijiang (朱以江).

After his brothers suicide, Zhu Yihai was enfeoffed as the 11th Prince of Lu by Chongzhen Emperor. After four days he succeeded his peerage, Li Zicheng attacked Beijing and he fled to southern China.


The Prince of Lu was part of the resistance against the invading Qing dynasty forces. His primary consort (元妃), Lady Chen, committed suicide during the impending fall of the Ming. The location of her suicide can still be found on the island of Zhoushan.

In 1651 he fled to the island of Kinmen, which in 1663 was taken over by the invading force.[5] His grave was discovered on the island in 1959, which disproved the theory advanced by the 18th-century History of Ming that he was killed by Koxinga. His eldest son, Zhu Honghuan (朱弘桓), married the fourth daughter of Koxinga and went to live in the Kingdom of Tungning Taiwan under the protection of Zheng Jing, his brother-in-law and worked as a farmer.[6][7] Another Ming Prince who accompanied Koxinga to Taiwan was the Prince of Ningjing Zhu Shugui.

After the surrender of the Kingdom of Tungning, the Qing sent the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan back to mainland China where they spent the rest of their lives.[8] Including Zhu Honghuan.


  • The Pacification of Taiwan by the Great Qing (大清台湾绥记).
  1. ^ "哪些虚假庙号谥号被新闻媒体、杂志书籍当作真实的写入报道或资料中? – 知乎". www.zhihu.com. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  2. ^ Marcus Bingenheimer (15 March 2016). Island of Guanyin: Mount Putuo and Its Gazetteers. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-19-045620-7.
  3. ^ Lynn A. Struve (1993). Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws. Yale University Press. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-0-300-07553-3.
  4. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (20 September 2007). Return to Dragon Mountain: Memories of a Late Ming Man. Penguin Publishing Group. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-4406-2027-0.
  5. ^ Frederic Wakeman Jr. (1986). Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of the Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-520-04804-0. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
  6. ^ Brief Biographies of Historical Figures in Taiwan: From the Ming and Qing to the Japanese Occupation (臺灣歷史人物小傳—明清暨日據時期). National Library of Taiwan. December 2, 2003. p. 102.
  7. ^ "Historic Documents on Taiwan (臺灣文獻)". 41 (3 & 4). 1990. Retrieved 14 February 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ Manthorpe 2008, p. 108.
Zhu Yihai
House of Zhu
Prince of Lu's (魯王) line
(line of one of Hongwu Emperor's sons)
Born: 6 July 1618 Died: 23 December 1662
Chinese nobility
Preceded by
Zhu Yipai, the 10th Prince
Prince of Lu (魯王)
February 1644 – 6 July 1662
Succeeded by
Zhu Honghuan, the 12th Prince
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zhu Yousong, Hongguang Emperor
Zhu Yujian, Longwu Emperor
Zhu Changfang, Prince Min of Lu
Regent / Emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty
1645 – June 1655
Succeeded by
Zhu Yuyue, Shaowu Emperor
Zhu Changqing, Dongwu Emperor
Zhu Youlang, Yongli Emperor